Joe Biden, Tim Kaine and Gorgeous George himself are Isaac Hecker’s fault?

Joe Biden [Tim Kaine and Gorgeous George himself] is are Isaac Hecker’s fault?

Russell Shaw’s new book on Catholics in America offers a look at how we’ve arrived at our current situation—Catholic politicians supporting public policies that flatly contradict basic moral truths taught by the Church.

August 24, 2016
George Weigel

US Catholics generally know little about the Church’s history in our country. But whether you’re trying to fill gaps in your knowledge or just looking for a good read, let me recommend a new book by Russell Shaw: Catholics in America: Religious Identity and Cultural Assimilation from John Carroll to Flannery O’Connor (Ignatius Press).

Its formidable subtitle notwithstanding, Russ Shaw’s new book is an easy-to-digest smorgasbord, a portrait gallery of 15 important characters in the American Catholic story. Three of the heroes of my Baltimore boyhood get their just deserts: Archbishop John Carroll, first and arguably greatest of US bishops; Cardinal James Gibbons, America’s most prominent Catholic for four decades; and St. Elizabeth Ann Seton, “Wild Betty” as she once called herself, foundress of the Catholic school system that’s still the Church’s best anti-poverty program.

The politicos (Al Smith and JFK) and the intellectuals (combustible, cantankerous Orestes Brownson and the scholarly old-school Jesuit, John Courtney Murray) are neatly sketched, as are three women of consequence: St. Frances Xavier Cabrini, Dorothy Day, and Flannery O’Connor. A trio of New Yorkers (one born in Ireland, another in Massachusetts, and another in Peoria) take their turns on stage in the persons of Archbishop “Dagger John” Hughes, Cardinal Francis Spellman, and Spelly’s rival, Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen. Then there’s the remarkable Father Michael McGivney, founder of the Knights of Columbus and, I hope, America’s next beatus.

For contemporary purposes and debates, one of the most suggestive of Shaw’s portraits is that of Father Isaac Hecker, another candidate for beatification. Shortly after his death in 1888, Hecker became the subject of contention in Rome, when an ill-translated biography of the founder of the Paulists, and some intra-Catholic brawling among US hierarchs, led to a papal warning against “Americanism”—a way-of-being-Catholic that Pope Leo XIII deemed excessively privatized, insufficiently contemplative, and dismissive of the Church’s magisterium. Ever since, US Catholic historians have been arguing about whether “Americanism” was a phantom heresy.

There seem to be three contending parties in that debate. The canonical view of classic US Catholic historians like John Tracy Ellis was that “Americanism” was indeed a phantasm of fevered Roman minds. Then, in the 1970s, came the revisionist view that Hecker, and bishops like John Ireland of St. Paul-Minneapolis, John Keane of Catholic University, and Cardinal Gibbons, were in fact exploring a new ecclesiology, a new way of thinking about the Church, that Vatican II would vindicate in its Dogmatic Constitution on the Church and Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World.

Now comes Russell Shaw, who, in his portrait of Hecker, continues to press an argument he first raised in 2013 in American Church: The Remarkable Rise, Meteoric Fall, and Uncertain Future of Catholicism in America (the man does have a way with subtitles). Reduced to essentials, Shaw’s contention is that Hecker and those of his “Americanist” cast of mind did represent an assimilationist current in US Catholic thought—a tendency to bend over backwards to “fit into” American culture—that eventually made possible Ted Kennedy, Barbara Mikulski, Nancy Pelosi, and Joe Biden: cradle-Catholic politicians who support public policies that flatly contradict basic moral truths taught by the Church on the basis of reason and revelation, justify their votes in the name of “democracy” and “pluralism,” and are supported by a lot of fellow-Catholics in doing so.

To be sure, Shaw acknowledges that Hecker’s great goal was to convert America to Catholicism, not retrofit Catholicism to the dominant American culture of his day (which I think my friend misstates as “secular” rather than “Protestant”). Hecker’s failure, as I read Shaw, is that he didn’t grasp that there were corrosives built into American public culture that would eventually eat away at core Catholic convictions. And if that’s what Russ Shaw is arguing, then he’s implicitly adopting the “ill-founded Republic” optic on US history advanced by such scholars as Patrick Deneen and David Schindler.

My own view is that the failure of Catholics to infuse American politics with Catholic social doctrine has had a lot more to do with creating Joe Biden & Co. than Isaac Hecker and the 19th-century “Americanists.” In any case, Shaw’s new book and its predecessor are good places to begin thinking about what went wrong here and why.

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One comment on “Joe Biden, Tim Kaine and Gorgeous George himself are Isaac Hecker’s fault?

  1. The desire for Catholics to fit in and thrive within American society underwent an evolution from the 19th-century ghetto enclaves, through the vague Americanism of Gibbons, JFK’s anti-Catholic experiences at Choate and Harvard, to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association Speech and the Hyannis Port Synod on making an accommodation on abortion which became the official Ted Kennedy-Robert Drinan position of “personally opposed, but…” Much of this was rooted in Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.’s experiences of shame and status anxiety for being subjected to anti-Catholic bigotry at Harvard and his desire to be accepted as an “American” by Protestants, apparently whatever the cost. That’s what happened. Many American Catholics are now hostages to this and its dissolution of their Catholic identity.

    Father Hecker probably could not have imagined Catholics actually speaking in support of federal funding of partial-birth abortion or defending Planned Parenthood and its sale of fetal body parts, but postmodern America is a long way adrift from 19th-century American exceptionalism, Whig ideas, and the ideology of progress in its multiculturalist and Frankfurt School nihilism today. The Kennedy status anxiety behind progressive modernism’s surrender to abortion never really had a firm grasp of what Catholic attitudes toward modernity or secularism should be. Maybe it is time to rethink the project of modernism in America?

    Biden, Pelosi, and Kaine are just puppets in this dialectic, incapable of rational judgment or analysis of the natural law issues involved. Will any bishop or Catholic theologian explain it to them publicly? If not, why not?

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