Aquinas: Commentary on the Psalms

Aquinas: Commentary on the Psalms
Postilla Super Psalmos
dhspriory.org/thomas/PsalmsAquinas/ThoPs0.htm
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St. Thomas’s Introduction to his Exposition of the Psalms of David

In omni opere suo dedit confessionem Sancto et Excelso in verbo gloriae Eccli. 47
“In all his works he gave thanks to the holy one, and to the most High, with words of glory.” Eccl. 47:9

Verba haec dicuntur de David ad litteram, et satis convenienter assumuntur ad ostendum causam huius operis: in quibus ostenditur quadruplex causa huius, scilicet materia, modus seu forma, finis, et agens.
These words are spoken of David literally, and they are suitably enough applied to showing the cause of this work: in this words there is shown the fourfold cause of the work, namely, the matter, the mode or form, the end and the agent.

Materia est universalis: quia cum singuli libri canonicae Scripturae speciales materias habeant, hic liber generalem habet totius Theologiae.
The material is universal, for while the particular books of the Canon of Scripture contain special materials, this book has the general material of Theology as a whole.

Et hoc est quod dicit Dion. 3, libro Caelest. Hierar. Divinarum odarum (idest Psalmorum) sacram scripturam intendere est sacras et divinas operationes universas decantare
This is what Dionysius says, in book 3 of the Caelestial Hierarchy, The sacred scripture of the Divine Songs (the Psalms) is intended to sing of all sacred and divine workings.

Unde signatur materia in hoc quod dicit, in omni opere, quia de omni opere Dei tractat.
Hence the material is indicated in what he says, in all his works, because he treats of every work of God.

Est autem quadruplex opus Dei; scilicet creationis, Gen. I. Requievit Deus die septima ab omni opere etc.; gubernationis, Ioan. 5. Pater meus usque modo operatur etc.; reparationis, Ioan. 4. Meus cibus est ut faciam voluntatem eius qui misit me, ut perficiam opus eius; glorificationis, Eccli. 42. Gloria Domini plenum est opus eius.

Now the work of God is fourfold; namely, that of creation, Genesis 2:2 “God rested on the seventh day from all his work” etc.; governance, John 5:17 “My Father worketh until now“; reparation, John 4: “My meat is to do the will of him that sent me, that I may perfect his work“; glorification, Ecclesiasticus 42:16 “Full of the glory of the Lord are his works.”

Et de his omnibus complete in hac doctrina tractatur
There is a complete treatment of all these things in this doctrine.

Primo de opere creationis Psalm. 8, Videbo caelos tuos opera digitorum tuorum.
First, of the work of creation, Psalm 8 I will see your heavens, the work of your fingers

Secundo gubernationis, quia omnes historiae veteris testamenti tanguntur in hoc libro: Psalm. 77, Aperiam in parabolis os meum etc.
Second, of the work of governance, because in this book all the stories of the Old Testament are touched upon: Psalm 77 I will open my mouth in parables etc.

Tertio, reparationis, quantum ad caput, scilicet Christum, et quantum ad omnes effectus gratiae, Psal. 3. Ego dormivi, et somnum etc.
Third, of reparation, with respect to the head, namely Christ, and with respect to all the effects of grace, Psalm 3 I lay down, and sleep comes to me etc.

Omnia enim quae ad fidem incarnationis pertinent, sic dilucide traduntur in hoc opere, ut fere videatur Envangelium, et non Prophetia.
All the things that concern faith in the incaration are so clearly set forth in this work that it almost seems like the Gospel, and not prophecy.

Quarto est opus glorificationis: Psalm. 149. Exultabunt sancti in gloria eius etc.
Fourth, there is the work of glorification: Psalm. 149 The saints will exult in his glory etc.

Et haec erit ratio quare magis frequentatur Psalterium in Ecclesia, quia continet totam Scripturam.
And this will be the reason why the Psalter is read more often in the Church, because it contains the whole of Scripture.

Vel, secundum Glossam, ad dandam nobis spem divinae misericordiae: quia cum peccasset David, tamen per poenitentiam est reparatus.
Or, according to the Gloss, it is to give us hope of divine mercy, because when David had sinned, he made reparation through penitence.

Materia ergo universalis est, quia omne opus.
The material, therefore, is universal, because it is the whole work.

Et quia hoc ad Christum spectat, Coloss. 1, In ipso complacuis omnem plenitudinem divinitatis inhabitare; ideo materia huius libri est Christus, et membra eius.

And because it concerns Christ, Coloss. 1 you have been pleased that all fullness of divinity should dwell in him.; therefore the material of this book is Christ and his members.

Modus seu forma in Sacra Scriptura multiplex invenitur.
The mode or form is found to be of many kinds in Sacred Scripture.

Narrativus, Eccli. 22. Nonne Deus fecit sanctos suos enarrare omnia mirabilia sua?. Et hoc in historialibus libris invenitur.
There is the narrative mode, Eccli. 22 Has not God made his saints narrate all his wonders?. And this is found in the historical books.

Admonitorius, et exhortatorius, et praeceptivus, ad Titum 2. Haec loquere, et exhortare, et argue cum omni imperio: secun. Tim. 2. Haec commone, testificans coram Deo etc.

There is the admonishing, the exhorting, and the preceptive mode, Titus 2. Say these things, exhort and correct with all authority of command.: II Timothy 2. Remind people of this things, and bear witness before God etc.

Hic modus invenitur in Lege, Prophetis, et Libris Salomonis.
This mode is found in the Law, the Prophets, and the Books of Solomon.

Disputativus; et hoc in Iob, et in Apostolo: Iob 13. Disputare cum Deo cupio

There is the mode of dispute; and this is found in Job, and the Apostle: Job 13. I desire to argue with God.

Deprecativus, vel laudativus; et hoc invenitur in isto libro; quia quicquid in aliis libris praedictis modis dicitur, hic ponitur per modum laudis, et orationis: infra (Psalm. 9) Confitebor tibi, Domine, etc. narrabo etc.

There is the deprecative or laudative mode; and this is found in this book; because whatever is said in the other books in the aforesaid modes, is put here by the mode of praise and prayer: below (Psalm 9) I will confess to you, Lord, etc. I will narrate etc.

Et ideo dicit, Dedit confessionem, quia per modum confitendi loquitur.
And thus he says He gave a confession, because he is speaking by the mode of confessing.

Et hinc sumitur ratio tituli qui est, Incipit liber hymnorum, seu soliloquiorum Propheta David de Christo.

Hence the reason for the title is drawn, which is The beginning of the book of hymns, or of the soliloquies of the Prophet David concerning Christ.

Hymnus est laus Dei cum cantico; canticum autem exultatio mentis de aeternis habita, prorumpens in vocem.

A hymn is the praise of God with song; a song is the exultation of the mind dwelling on eternal things, bursting forth in the voice.

Docet ergo laudare Deum cum exultatione.
Therefore he teaches how to praise God with exultation.

Soliloquium est collocutio hominis cum Deo singulariter, vel secum tantum, quia hoc convenit laudanti, et oranti .

A soliloquy is the conversation of man with God one to one, or speaking within himself alone, because this suits one who praises, and one who prays.

Huius Scripturae finis est oratio, quae est elevatio mentis in Deum. Damasc. lib. 3, Oratio est ascensus intellectus in Deum. Psalm. 140. Elevatio manuum mearum, sacrificium vespertinum.

The end purpose of this Scripture is prayer, which is the raising of the mind to God. John of Damascus, book 3, Prayer is the rising of the intellect to God. Psalm 140. The raising of my hands, the evening sacrifice.

Sed quatuor modis anima elevatur in Deum:
But the mind is raised to God in four modes:

scilicet ad admirandum celsitudinem potestatis ipsius. Esa. 40. Levate in excelsum oculos vestros, et videte quis creavit haec. Psalm. 103. Quam mirabilia sunt opera tua, Domine! Et haec est elevatio fidei.

namely, to admire the loftiness of his power, Isaiah 40. Lift your eyes on high, and see who created these things. Psalm 103 How marvelous are your work, Lord!. And this is the elevation of faith.

Secundo elevatur mens ad tendendum in excellentiam aeternae beatitudinis, Iob. 11. Levare poteris faciem tuam absque macula; eris stabilis, et non timebis: miseria quoque oblivisceris; et quasi fulgur meridianus consurget tibi. Et haec est elevatio spei.

Second, the mind is elevated to tend toward the excellence of eternal happiness, Job. 11. You will be able to lift your face without stain; you will stand firm, and will not fear: you will also forget misery; and like noonday brightness he will rise before you. And this is the elevation of hope.

Tertio elevatur mens ad inhaerendum divinae bonitati et sanctitati. Esa. 51. Elevare, consurge, Hierosalem etc. Et haec est elevatio charitatis.

Third, the mind is raised to hold fast to the divine goodness and holiness. Isaiah 51. Rise, get up, Jerusalem, etc. And this is the elevation of charity.

Quarto elevatur mens ad imitandum divinam iustitiam in opere. Tren. 3 Levemur corda nostra cum manibus ad Deum in caelos. Et haec est elevatio iustitiae.

Fourth, the mind is raised to imitate the divine justice in a work. Lamentations 3 Let us lift our hearts along with our hand to God toward the heavens. And this is the elevation of justice.

Et iste quadruplex modus insinuatur cum dicit: Sancto, et Excelso: quia duo ultimi modi elevationis pertinent ad hoc quod dicit, Excelso.

This fourfold mode is implied when he says: Holy, and Most High: because the last two modes of elevation concern that which he says: Most High.

Et quod hic sit finis scriptuae huius, habetur in Psalmis. Primo de Excelso Psalm. 112. A solis ortu… etc. et post, Excelsus super omnes etc.

And as for this being the end purpose of this scripture, we find evidence in the Psalms. First about Most High Psalm 112. From the rising of the sun…etc. and after that Most high above all etc.

Secundo de Sancto Psalm. 95. Confiteantur nomini tuo magno, quoniam terribile, et sanctum est.

Second, concerning Holy Psalm 95 May they confess to your great name, because it is to be feared, and it is holy

Ideo Greg. I. Hom. dicit super Ezech. quod vox psalmodiae si cum intentione cordis agitur, omnipotenti Deo per eam ad cor iter paratur, ut intenta anima aut prophetia mysteria, aut gratiam compunctionis infundat.

Therefore Gregory, I Homily, says on Ezechiel, that the voice of psalmody if it is done with the intention of the heart, prepares the way for almighty God through it to the heart, so that he may pour in mysteries or the grace of compunction, by an intent soul or prophecy.

Finis ergo est, ut anima coniungatur Deo, sicut Sancto, et Excelso. The end purpose therefore is for the soul to be joined with God, as the Holy and Most High.
Auctor autem huius operis significatur ibi in verbis gloriae

The author of this work, however, is signified there in words of glory.

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24 comments on “Aquinas: Commentary on the Psalms

  1. St. Augustine: Expositions on the Psalms
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    ENARRATIONES IN PSALMOS
    S. Aurelii Augustini OPERA OMNIA – editio latina > PL 36 > Enarrationes in Psalmos

    www.augustinus.it/latino/esposizioni_salmi/index2.htm

    IN PSALMUM 1
    ENARRATIO

    Superbia cathedra pestilentiae recte intelligitur.
    1. [v 1.] Beatus vir qui non abiit in consilio impiorum: de Domino nostro Iesu Christo, hoc est homine Dominico, accipiendum est. Beatus vir qui non abiit in consilio impiorum: sicut homo terrenus qui uxori consensit deceptae a serpente, ut Dei praecepta praeteriret. Et in via peccatorum non stetit: quia venit quidem in via peccatorum, nascendo sicut peccatores; sed non stetit, quia eum non tenuit illecebra saecularis. Et in cathedra pestilentiae non sedit: noluit regnum terrenum cum superbia; quae ideo cathedra pestilentiae recte intellegitur, quia non fere quisquam est qui careat amore dominandi et humanam non appetat gloriam; pestilentia est enim morbus late pervagatus, et omnes aut pene omnes involvens. Quamquam accommodatius accipiatur cathedra pestilentiae, perniciosa doctrina, cuius sermo ut cancer serpit1. Deinde considerandus est ordo verborum, abiit, stetit, sedit: abiit enim ille, cum recessit a Deo; stetit, cum delectatus est peccato; sedit, cum in sua superbia confirmatus, redire non potuit, nisi per eum liberatus, qui neque abiit in consilio impiorum, nec in via peccatorum stetit, nec in cathedra pestilentiae sedit.

    In lege et sub lege.

    2. [v 2.] Sed in lege Domini fuit voluntas eius, et in lege eius meditabitur die ac nocte. Iusto non est lex posita, ut dicit Apostolus 2; sed aliud est esse in lege, aliud sub lege: qui est in lege, secundum legem agit; qui est sub lege, secundum legem agitur. Ille ergo liber est, iste servus. Deinde aliud est lex quae scribitur, et imponitur servienti; aliud lex quae mente conspicitur, ab eo qui non indiget litteris. Meditabitur die ac nocte: aut sine intermissione intellegendum est; aut die in laetitia, nocte in tribulationibus; dicitur enim: Abraham diem meum vidit, et gavisus est 3; et de tribulatione dicitur: Insuper et usque ad noctem emendaverunt me renes mei 4.

    Christus lignum salutis.

    3. [v 3.] Et erit tamquam lignum quod plantatum est secundum decursus aquarum: id est, aut secundum ipsam Sapientiam, quae dignata est hominem suscipere ad salutem nostram; ut ipse homo sit lignum plantatum secundum decursus aquarum: potest enim et hoc intellectu accipi, quod in alio psalmo dicitur: Fluvius Dei repletus est aqua 5. Aut secundum Spiritum sanctum, secundum quem dicitur: Ipse vos baptizabit in Spiritu sancto 6; et illud: Qui sitit, veniat, et bibat 7; et illud: Si scires donum Dei, et quis est qui a te aquam petit; petisses ab eo, et daret tibi aquam vivam, unde qui biberit non sitiet in aeternum; sed efficietur in eo fons aquae salientis in vitam aeternam 8. Aut secundum decursus aquarum, secundum populorum peccata, quia et aquae populi interpretantur in Apocalypsi 9; et decursus non absurde intellegitur lapsus, quod pertinet ad delictum. Lignum ergo illud, id est Dominus noster, de aquis decurrentibus, id est populis peccatoribus, trahens eos in via in radices disciplinae suae, fructum dabit, hoc est, constituet Ecclesias; in tempore suo, id est, postquam clarificatus est resurrectione et ascensione in coelum. Tunc enim Spiritu sancto misso Apostolis, et eis in fiducia sui confirmatis et directis in populos, fructificavit Ecclesias. Et folium eius non decidet: id est, verbum eius non erit irritum; quia omnis caro foenum, et claritas hominis ut flos foeni: foenum aruit, et flos decidit, verbum autem Domini manet in aeternum 10. Et omnia quaecumque fecerit prosperabuntur: id est, quaecumque illud lignum attulerit; quae omnia videlicet accipienda sunt fructus et folia, id est facta et dicta.

    Superbia est ventus.

    4. [v 4.] Non sic impii, non sic: sed tamquam pulvis quem proicit ventus a facie terrae. Terra hic accipienda est ipsa stabilitas in Deo, secundum quam dicitur: Dominus pars haereditatis meae, etenim haereditas mea praeclara est mihi 11; secundum hanc dicitur: Sustine Dominum, et observa vias eius, et exaltabit te, ut possideas terram 12; secundum hanc dicitur: Beati mites, quia ipsi haereditate possidebunt terram 13. Similitudo autem hinc ducta est; quia ut haec terra visibilis exteriorem hominem nutrit et continet, ita illa terra invisibilis interiorem hominem. A cuius terrae facie proicit ventus impium, id est superbia, quia inflat. Quam cavens ille qui inebriabatur ab ubertate domus Dei, et torrente voluptatis eius potabatur, dicit: Non veniat mihi pes superbiae 14. Ab hac terra proiecit superbia eum qui dixit: Ponam sedem meam ad Aquilonem, et ero similis Altissimo 15. Ab huius terrae facie proiecit etiam eum qui, cum consensisset et gustasset de prohibito ligno, ut esset sicut Deus, abscondit se a facie Dei 16. Hanc terram ad interiorem hominem pertinere, et inde superbia hominem proici, maxime intellegi potest in eo quod scriptum est: Quid superbit terra et cinis? quoniam in vita sua proiecit intima sua 17; unde enim proiectus est, non absurde se dicitur proiecisse.

    Aliud impii, aliud peccatores.

    5. [v 5.] Ideo non resurgunt impii in iudicio: ideo scilicet, quia tamquam pulvis proiciuntur a facie terrae. Et bene hoc eis dixit auferri quod superbi ambiunt, id est ut iudicent, ut hoc ipsum planius dictum intellegatur sequenti sententia: Neque peccatores in consilio iustorum. Solet enim hoc modo repeti planius quod superius dicitur, ut peccatores intellegantur impii; et quod supra dictum est in iudicio, hic dictum sit in consilio iustorum. Aut certe si aliud sunt impii, aliud peccatores; ut quamquam omnis impius peccator sit, non tamen omnis peccator sit impius. Impii non resurgunt in iudicio: id est, resurgent quidem, sed non ut iudicentur, quia iam poenis certissimis destinati sunt; peccatores autem non resurgunt in consilio iustorum, id est ut iudicent, sed forte ut iudicentur, ut de his dictum sit: Uniuscuiusque opus quale sit, ignis probabit: si cuius opus manserit, mercedem accipiet: si cuius autem opus exustum fuerit, detrimentum patietur; ipse autem salvus erit, sic tamen quasi per ignem 18

    Nesciri a Domino est perire.

    6. [v 6.] Quoniam novit Dominus viam iustorum. Quemadmodum dicitur: Novit salutem medicina, morbos autem non novit; et tamen etiam morbi arte medicinae agnoscuntur; sic dici potest, nosse Dominum viam iustorum, viam vero impiorum non nosse; non quia aliquid Dominus nescit, et tamen dicit peccatoribus: Non novi vos 19. Iter autem impiorum peribit, pro eo positum est, ac si diceretur: Iter autem impiorum non novit Dominus. Sed planius dictum est, ut hoc sit nesciri a Domino, quod est perire, et hoc sit sciri Domino, quod est manere: ut ad scientiam Dei esse pertineat, ad ignorantiam vero non esse; quia Dominus dicit: Ego sum qui sum; et: Qui est, misit me

    Fathers of the Church > Expositions on the Psalms (Augustine) > Psalm 1
    www.newadvent.org/fathers/1801.htm
    Exposition on Psalm 1

    1. “Blessed is the man that has not gone away in the counsel of the ungodly” Psalm 1:1. This is to be understood of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord Man. “Blessed is the man that has not gone away in the counsel of the ungodly,” as “the man of earth did,” 1 Corinthians 15:47 who consented to his wife deceived by the serpent, to the transgressing the commandment of God. “Nor stood in the way of sinners.” For He came indeed in the way of sinners, by being born as sinners are; but He “stood” not therein, for that the enticements of the world held Him not. “And has not sat in the seat of pestilence.” He willed not an earthly kingdom, with pride, which is well taken for “the seat of pestilence;” for that there is hardly any one who is free from the love of rule, and craves not human glory. For a “pestilence” is disease widely spread, and involving all or nearly all. Yet “the seat of pestilence” may be more appropriately understood of hurtful doctrine; “whose word spreads as a canker.” 2 Timothy 2:17 The order too of the words must be considered: “went away, stood, sat.” For he “went away,” when he drew back from God. He “stood,” when he took pleasure in sin. He “sat,” when, confirmed in his pride, he could not go back, unless set free by Him, who neither “has gone away in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of pestilence.”

    2. “But his delight is in the law of the Lord, and in His law will he meditate by day and by night Psalm 1:2. The law is not made for a righteous man,” 1 Timothy 1:9 says the Apostle. But it is one thing to be in the law, another under the law. Whoso is in the law, acts according to the law; whoso is under the law, is acted upon according to the law: the one therefore is free, the other a slave. Again, the law, which is written and imposed upon the servant, is one thing; the law, which is mentally discerned by him who needs not its “letter,” is another thing. “He will meditate by day and by night,” is to be understood either as without ceasing; or “by day” in joy, “by night” in tribulations. For it is said, “Abraham saw my day, and was glad:” John 8:5-6 and of tribulation it is said, “my reins also have instructed me, even unto the night.”

    3. “And he shall be like a tree planted hard by the running streams of waters” Psalm 1:3; that is either Very “Wisdom,” Proverbs viii which vouchsafed to assume man’s nature for our salvation; that as man He might be “the tree planted hard by the running streams of waters;” for in this sense can that too be taken which is said in another Psalm, “the river of God is full of water.” Or by the Holy Ghost, of whom it is said, “He shall baptize you in the Holy Ghost;” Matthew 3:11 and again, “If any man thirst, let him come unto Me, and drink;” John 7:37 and again, “If you knew the gift of God, and who it is that asks water of you, you would have asked of Him, and He would have given you living water, of which whoso drinks shall never thirst, but it shall be made in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life.” Or, “by the running streams of waters” may be by the sins of the people, because first the waters are called “peoples” in the Apocalypse; Revelation 17:15 and again, by “running stream” is not unreasonably understood “fall,” which has relation to sin. That “tree” then, that is, our Lord, from the running streams of water, that is, from the sinful people’s drawing them by the way into the roots of His discipline, will “bring forth fruit,” that is, will establish Churches; “in His season,” that is, after He has been glorified by His Resurrection and Ascension into heaven. For then, by the sending of the Holy Ghost to the Apostles, and by the confirming of their faith in Him, and their mission to the world, He made the Churches to “bring forth fruit.” “His leaf also shall not fall,” that is, His Word shall not be in vain. For, “all flesh is grass, and the glory of man as the flower of grass; the grass withers, and the flower falls, but the word of the Lord abides for ever. Isaiah 40:6-8 And whatsoever He does shall prosper” that is, whatsoever that tree shall bear; which all must be taken of fruit and leaves, that is, deeds and words.

    4. “The ungodly are not so,” they are not so, “but are like the dust which the wind casts forth from the face of the earth” Psalm 1:4. “The earth” is here to be taken as that steadfastness in God, with a view to which it is said, “The Lord is the portion of mine inheritance, yea, I have a goodly heritage.” With a view to this it is said, “Wait on the Lord and keep His ways, and He shall exalt you to inherit the earth.” With a view to this it is said, “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.” Matthew 5:5 A comparison too is derived hence, for as this visible earth supports and contains the outer man, so that earth invisible the inner man. “From the face of” which “earth the wind casts forth the ungodly,” that is, pride, in that it puffs him up. On his guard against which he, who was inebriated by the richness of the house of the Lord, and drunken of the torrent stream of its pleasures, says, “Let not the foot of pride come against me.” From this earth pride cast forth him who said, “I will place my seat in the north, and I will be like the Most High.” Isaiah 14:13-14 From the face of the earth it cast forth him also who, after that he had consented and tasted of the forbidden tree that he might be as God, hid himself from the Face of God. Genesis 3:8 That his earth has reference to the inner man, and that man is cast forth thence by pride, may be particularly seen in that which is written, “Why is earth and ashes proud? Because, in his life, he cast forth his bowels.” Sirach 10:9 For, whence he has been cast forth, he is not unreasonably said to have cast forth himself.

    5. “Therefore the ungodly rise not in the judgment” Psalm 1:5: “therefore,” namely, because “as dust they are cast forth from the face of the earth.” And well did he say that this should be taken away from them, which in their pride they court, namely, that they may judge; so that this same idea is more clearly expressed in the following sentence, “nor sinners in the counsel of the righteous.” For it is usual for what goes before, to be thus repeated more clearly. So that by “sinners” should be understood the “ungodly;” what is before “in the judgment,” should be here “in the counsel of the righteous.” Or if indeed the ungodly are one thing, and sinners another, so that although every ungodly man is a sinner, yet every sinner is not ungodly; “The ungodly rise not in the judgment,” that is, they shall rise indeed, but not that they should be judged, for they are already appointed to most certain punishment. But “sinners” do not rise “in counsel of the just,” that is, that they may judge, but perhaps that they may be judged; so as of these it were said, “The fire shall try every man’s work of what sort it is. If any man’s work abide, he shall receive a reward. If any man’s work shall be burned, he shall then suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.”

    6. “For the Lord knows the way of the righteous” Psalm 1:6. As it is said, medicine knows health, but knows not disease, and yet disease is recognised by the art of medicine. In like manner can it be said that “the Lord knows the way of the righteous,” but the way of the ungodly He knows not. Not that the Lord is ignorant of anything, and yet He says to sinners, “I never knew you.” Matthew 7:23 “But the way of the ungodly shall perish;” is the same as if it were said, the way of the ungodly the Lord knows not. But it is expressed more plainly that this should be not to be known of the Lord, namely, to “perish;” and this to be known of the Lord, namely, to “abide;” so as that to be should appertain to the knowledge of God, but to His not knowing not to be. For the Lord says, “I Am that I Am,” and, “I Am has sent me.”

  2. In comparing the exegesis of the Psalms presented by Aquinas and St. Augustine
    we can come to a deeper appreciation of the ancient language of sacred scripture and, hence, of the Mass itself.
    It will become easier to see the scriptural basis and foundation of the words of the Mass,as well as the theology presented by St. Thomas in his commentaries.
    St. Thomas Aquinas begins with a verse from Ecclesiasticus:
    In omni opere suo dedit confessionem Sancto et Excelso in verbo gloriae Eccli. 47
    “In all his works he gave thanks to the holy one, and to the most High, with words of glory.” Eccl. 47:9
    Latin students might immediately recognize the similarity to “Gloria in Excelsis Deo” and think of Christmas.
    The literal translation of et Excelso in verbo gloriae would be “and to the Most High in word of glory.”
    The Latin of the Vulgate differs slightly from the Greek in grammatical structures.
    The Greek rendering of the phrase in Ecclesiasticus 47:9 (ρήματι δόξης, rhēmati doxes) does not contain the preposition as in the Latin (in verbo gloriae).
    Scribal preference in grammar, perhaps, or the manuscript was difficult to read.
    The original Greek text from The Septuagint version
    is as follows: ἐν παντὶ ἔργῳ αὐτοῦ ἔδωκεν ἐξομολόγησιν ἁγίῳ ῾Υψίστῳ ρήματι δόξης·
    (en panti ergo autou edoken exomologesin agio hupsisto rhēmati doxes)

    The Greek ρήματι δόξης (rhēmati doxes,Latin:verbo gloriae, word of glory) can be compared with other occurences in sacred scripture, particularly ῥήματι τῆς δυνάμεως (“word of power” , Hebrews 1:3) and ῥήματι Θεοῦ (rhēmati Theou, “word of God”, Luke 4:4).

    ῥήματι (rhēmati) — 6 Occurrences
    Matthew 4:4 N-DNS
    BIB: ἐπὶ παντὶ ῥήματι ἐκπορευομένῳ διὰ
    NAS: BUT ON EVERY WORD THAT PROCEEDS
    KJV: by every word that proceedeth out of
    INT: by every word coming out of

    Luke 4:4 Noun-DNS
    BIB: ἐπὶ παντὶ ῥήματι Θεοῦ
    KJV: by every word of God.
    INT: by every word of God

    Luke 5:5 N-DNS
    BIB: δὲ τῷ ῥήματί σου χαλάσω
    NAS: nothing, but I will do as You say [and] let down
    KJV: at thy word I will let down the net.
    INT: however the word of you I will let down

    Ephesians 5:26 N-DNS
    BIB: ὕδατος ἐν ῥήματι
    NAS: of water with the word,
    KJV: of water by the word,
    INT: of water by [the] word

    Hebrews 1:3 N-DNS
    BIB: πάντα τῷ ῥήματι τῆς δυνάμεως
    NAS: all things by the word of His power.
    KJV: all things by the word of his
    INT: all things by the word of the power

    Hebrews 11:3 N-DNS
    BIB: τοὺς αἰῶνας ῥήματι θεοῦ εἰς
    NAS: were prepared by the word of God,
    KJV: were framed by the word of God,
    INT: the worlds by [the] word of God so that
    Englishman’s Greek Concordance: biblesuite.com/greek/re_mati_4487.htm

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    Here’s a verse appropriate for the day after the moral disaster of yesterday’s election:

    Beatus vir qui non abiit in consilio impiorum:
    “Blessed is the man that has not gone away in the counsel of the ungodly” Psalm 1:1

    Full verse:
    Latin Vulgate: beatus vir qui non abiit in consilio impiorum et in via peccatorum non stetit in cathedra derisorum non sedit

    Greek: μακάριος ἀνήρ ὃς οὐκ ἐπορεύθη ἐν βουλῇ ἀσεβῶν καὶ ἐν ὁδῷ ἁμαρτωλῶν οὐκ ἔστη καὶ ἐπὶ καθέδραν λοιμῶν οὐκ ἐκάθισεν
    (makarios anēr os ouk eporeuthē en boulē asebōn kai en odō amartōlōn ouk estē kai epi kathedran loimōn ouk ekathisen)

    King James Version:
    Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful.

    Douay-Rheims Bible:
    Blessed is the man who hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the chair of pestilence.

    Father Haydock commentary:Psalm i. (Beatus vir.)

    Notes & Commentary:

    [Ver. 1.] Theodoret observes that this psalm has “no title in Hebrew;” and some have attributed it to Esdras, when he collected the psalms into one book. But the Complutensian Septuagint reads, “A psalm for David;” “without a title among the Hebrews.” The Fathers attribute it to David, and suppose that he speaks particularly of Joseph of Arimathea, or of Jesus Christ; though the Jews refer this high encomium to Josias. Jeremias (xvii. 7.) has imitated this psalm, which may be considered as a preface to all the rest, and an abridgment of the whole duty of man. (Calmet) — Blessed. Hebrew also, Manifold are (Haydock) “the blessings” (Pagnin) both for time (Haydock) and eternity. (Worthington) — Ungodly, who mind no religion, or a false one. (Haydock) — Hebrew, “inconstant.” — Sinners, who are still more obstinate. (Calmet) — Pestilence. Hebrew, “scoffers,” who are the most dangerous sort of people, boldly deriding all religion, and maintaining atheism. There is a beautiful gradation here observed, showing the fatal consequences of evil company. If the virtuous associate with one even of the least contagious, the infection presently catches him, and he is soon introduced among the more dissolute, where he stops with little remorse, till at last he even glories in his shame, and becomes a champion of impiety, 1 Corinthians xv. 33. (Haydock) — These three sorts of wicked people may designate pagans, Jews, and heretics. (St. Clement [of Alexandria?], Strom. ii.; St. Jerome) (Calmet) — He is on the road to heaven, who has not consented to evil suggestions, nor continued in sin, so as to die impenitent. (Worthington)

    Virtus est vitium fugere, et sapientia prima. (Horace i. ep. 1.)

    — The suggestion, delight, and consent to sin, are here rejected, as well as every offence against God, ourselves, or our neighbours. (Hopper.)

    Bible Text & Cross-references:
    The happiness of the just: and the evil state of the wicked.

    1 Blessed is the man who hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the chair of pestilence:

    2 *But his will is in the law of the Lord, and on his law he shall meditate day and night.

    3 *And he shall be like a tree which is planted near the running waters, which shall bring forth its fruit, in due season.

    And his leaf shall not fall off: and all whatoever he shall do shall prosper.

    4 Not so the wicked, not so: but like the dust, which the wind driveth from the face of the earth.

    5 Therefore the wicked shall not rise again in judgment: nor sinners in the council of the just.

    6 For the Lord knoweth the way of the just: and the way of the wicked shall perish.

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  4. Latin Vulgate:Psalm 1:

    1 beatus vir qui non abiit in consilio impiorum et in via peccatorum non stetit in cathedra derisorum non sedit
    Blessed is the man who hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the chair of pestilence.

    2 sed in lege Domini voluntas eius et in lege eius meditabitur die ac nocte
    But his will is in the law of the Lord, and on his law he shall meditate day and night.

    3 et erit tamquam lignum transplantatum iuxta rivulos aquarum quod fructum suum dabit in tempore suo et folium eius non defluet et omne quod fecerit prosperabitur
    And he shall be like a tree which is planted near the running waters, which shall bring forth its fruit, in due season. And his leaf shall not fall off: and all whosoever he shall do shall prosper.

    4 non sic impii sed tamquam pulvis quem proicit ventus
    Not so the wicked, not so: but like the dust, which the wind driveth from the face of the earth.

    5 propterea non resurgent impii in iudicio neque peccatores in congregatione iustorum
    Therefore the wicked shall not rise again in judgment: nor sinners in the council of the just.

    6 quoniam novit Dominus viam iustorum et iter impiorum peribit
    For the Lord knoweth the way of the just: and the way of the wicked shall perish.

    Psalm 1 Greek OT: Septuagint with Diacritics

    1 μακάριος ἀνήρ ὃς οὐκ ἐπορεύθη ἐν βουλῇ ἀσεβῶν καὶ ἐν ὁδῷ ἁμαρτωλῶν οὐκ ἔστη καὶ ἐπὶ καθέδραν λοιμῶν οὐκ ἐκάθισεν
    (makarios anēr os ouk eporeuthē en boulē asebōn kai en odō amartōlōn ouk estē kai epi kathedran loimōn ouk ekathisen)

    2 ἀλλ’ ἢ ἐν τῷ νόμῳ κυρίου τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ νόμῳ αὐτοῦ μελετήσει ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτός
    (all’ ē en tō nomō kuriou to thelēma autou kai en tō nomō autou meletēsei ēmeras kai nuktos)

    3 καὶ ἔσται ὡς τὸ ξύλον τὸ πεφυτευμένον παρὰ τὰς διεξόδους τῶν ὑδάτων ὃ τὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ δώσει ἐν καιρῷ αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ φύλλον αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἀπορρυήσεται καὶ πάντα ὅσα ἂν ποιῇ κατευοδωθήσεται
    (kai estai ōs to xulon to pephuteumenon para tas diexodous tōn udatōn o ton karpon autou dōsei en kairō autou kai to phullon autou ouk aporruēsetai kai panta osa an poiē kateuodōthēsetai)

    4 οὐχ οὕτως οἱ ἀσεβεῖς οὐχ οὕτως ἀλλ’ ἢ ὡς ὁ χνοῦς ὃν ἐκριπτεῖ ὁ ἄνεμος ἀπὸ προσώπου τῆς γῆς
    (ouch houtōs oi asebeis ouch houtōs all’ ē hōs ho chnous hon ekriptei ho anemos apo prosōpou tēs gēs)

    5 διὰ τοῦτο οὐκ ἀναστήσονται ἀσεβεῖς ἐν κρίσει οὐδὲ ἁμαρτωλοὶ ἐν βουλῇ δικαίων
    (dia touto ouk anastēsontai asebeis en krisei oude hamartōloi en boulē dikaiōn)

    6 ὅτι γινώσκει κύριος ὁδὸν δικαίων καὶ ὁδὸς ἀσεβῶν ἀπολεῖται
    (hoti ginōskei kurios hodon dikaiōn kai hodos asebōn apoleitai)

    Douay-Rheims Bible

    1 Blessed is the man who hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the chair of pestilence.

    2 But his will is in the law of the Lord, and on his law he shall meditate day and night.

    3 And he shall be like a tree which is planted near the running waters, which shall bring forth its fruit, in due season. And his leaf shall not fall off: and all whosoever he shall do shall prosper.

    4 Not so the wicked, not so: but like the dust, which the wind driveth from the face of the earth.

    5 Therefore the wicked shall not rise again in judgment: nor sinners in the council of the just.

    6 For the Lord knoweth the way of the just: and the way of the wicked shall perish.

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  5. Reading the Latin of the Psalms and of the commentary of St. Thomas Aquinas (and that of St. Augustine) can lead to a deeper understanding and appreciation for the ancient language of the Mass.
    In the Latin translation of Psalm 1:1 the word for “blessed” is “beatus“:
    1 beatus vir qui non abiit in consilio impiorum et in via peccatorum non stetit in cathedra derisorum non sedit
    Blessed is the man who hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the chair of pestilence.
    The Hebrew word is אַ֥שְֽׁרֵי־ (ash·rei-), happiness, blessedness, from “ashar“:
    “to go straight, go on, advance”
    NASB Translation
    bless (1), call him blessed (1), call the blessed (1), call you blessed (1), called her blessed (1), called me blessed (1), called blessed (1), direct (1), guide (2), guided (1), happy (2), proceed (2), reprove (1).

    Genesis 30:13
    BIB: בְּאָשְׁרִ֕י כִּ֥י אִשְּׁר֖וּנִי בָּנ֑וֹת וַתִּקְרָ֥א
    NAS: will call me happy. So she named
    KJV: for the daughters will call me blessed: and she called
    INT: Happy for happy women will call

    The Greek equivalent for “beatus” is μακάριος (makarios) Phonetic Spelling: (mak-ar’-ee-os).
    The verb form is μακαρίζω to bless: makarízō – pronounce blessed, as the result of enjoying the benefits (privileges) that (literally) extend from God. See 3107 (makarios).

    Luke 1:48 V-FIA-3P
    BIB: τοῦ νῦν μακαριοῦσίν με πᾶσαι
    NAS: generations will count me blessed.
    KJV: shall call me blessed.
    INT: henceforth will count blessed me all
    James 5:11 V-PIA-1P
    BIB: ἰδοὺ μακαρίζομεν τοὺς ὑπομείναντας
    NAS: We count those blessed
    KJV: Behold, we count them happy which endure.
    INT: Behold we call blessed the [ones] having endured

    Strong’s Concordance:
    makarios: blessed, happy
    Original Word: μακάριος, α, ον
    Part of Speech: Adjective
    Transliteration: makarios
    Phonetic Spelling: (mak-ar’-ee-os)
    Short Definition: happy, blessed
    Definition: happy, blessed, to be envied.

    3107 makários (from mak-, “become long, large”) – properly, when God extends His benefits (the advantages He confers); blessed.

    3107 makários (“blessed”) describes a believer in enviable (“fortunate”) position from receiving God’s provisions (favor) – which (literally) extend (“make long, large”) His grace (benefits). This happens with receiving (obeying) the Lord’s inbirthings of faith. Hence, faith (4102 pístis) and 3107 (makários) are closely associated (Ro 4:5-7,14:22,23; Rev 14:12,13).

    Thayer’s Greek Lexicon:
    STRONGS NT 3107: μακάριος

    μακάριος, μακαρία, μακάριον (poetic μάκαρ) (from Pindar, Plato down), blessed, happy: joined to names of God, 1 Timothy 1:11; 1 Timothy 6:15 (cf. μακαρες Θεοί in Homer and Hesiod); ἐλπίς, Titus 2:13; as a predicate, Acts 20:35; 1 Peter 3:14; 1 Peter 4:14; ἡγοῦμαι τινα μακάριον, Acts 26:2; μακαραριος ἐν τίνι, James 1:25. In congratulations, the reason why one is to be pronounced blessed is expressed by a noun or by a participle taking the place of the subject, μακάριος ὁ etc. (Hebrew פְּ אַשְׁרֵי, Psalm 1:1; Deuteronomy 33:29, etc.) blessed the man, who etc. (Winer’s Grammar, 551 (512f)): Matthew 5:3-11; Luke 6:20-22; John 20:29; Revelation 1:3; Revelation 16:15; Revelation 19:9; Revelation 20:6; Revelation 22:14; by the addition to the noun of a participle which takes the place of a predicate, Luke 1:45; Luke 10:23; Luke 11:27; Revelation 14:13; followed by ὅς with a finite verb, Matthew 11:6; Luke 7:23; Luke 14:15; Romans 4:7f; the subject noun intervening, Luke 12:37, 43; Luke 23:29; James 1:12; μακάριοι … ὅτι, Matthew 13:16; Matthew 16:17; Luke 14:14; followed by ἐάν, John 13:17; 1 Corinthians 7:40. (See Schmidt, chapter 187, 7.)

    Strong’s Greek 3107
    50 Occurrences

    μακαρία — 2 Occ.
    Μακάριαι — 1 Occ.
    μακαρίαν — 1 Occ.
    μακαριωτέρα — 1 Occ.
    ΜΑΚΑΡΙΟΙ — 26 Occ.
    Μακάριόν — 2 Occ.
    μακάριός — 16 Occ.
    μακαρίου — 1 Occ.

    Matthew 5:3 Adj-NMP
    BIB: ΜΑΚΑΡΙΟΙ οἱ πτωχοὶ
    NAS: Blessed are the poor in spirit,
    KJV: Blessed [are] the poor in spirit:
    INT: Blessed [are] the poor
    Matthew 5:4 Adj-NMP
    BIB: μακάριοι οἱ πενθοῦντες
    NAS: Blessed are those who mourn,
    KJV: Blessed [are] they that mourn: for
    INT: Blessed they who mourn

    Matthew 5:5 Adj-NMP
    BIB: μακάριοι οἱ πραεῖς
    NAS: Blessed are the gentle,
    KJV: Blessed [are] the meek: for
    INT: Blessed the meek

    Matthew 5:6 Adj-NMP
    BIB: μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες
    NAS: Blessed are those who hunger
    KJV: Blessed [are] they which do hunger
    INT: Blessed they who hunger

    Matthew 5:7 Adj-NMP
    BIB: μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες
    NAS: Blessed are the merciful,
    KJV: Blessed [are] the merciful: for
    INT: Blessed the merciful

    Matthew 5:8 Adj-NMP
    BIB: μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ
    NAS: Blessed are the pure in heart,
    KJV: Blessed [are] the pure in heart:
    INT: Blessed the pure

    Matthew 5:9 Adj-NMP
    BIB: μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί
    NAS: Blessed are the peacemakers,
    KJV: Blessed [are] the peacemakers: for
    INT: Blessed the peacemakers

    Matthew 5:10 Adj-NMP
    BIB: μακάριοι οἱ δεδιωγμένοι
    NAS: Blessed are those
    KJV: Blessed [are] they which are persecuted
    INT: Blessed they who have been persecuted

    Matthew 5:11 Adj-NMP
    BIB: μακάριοί ἐστε ὅταν
    NAS: Blessed are you when [people] insult
    KJV: Blessed are ye, when
    INT: Blessed are you when

    Matthew 11:6 Adj-NMS
    BIB: καὶ μακάριός ἐστιν ὃς
    NAS: And blessed is he who
    KJV: And blessed is [he], whosoever
    INT: And blessed is he who

    Matthew 13:16 Adj-NMP
    BIB: ὑμῶν δὲ μακάριοι οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ
    NAS: But blessed are your eyes, because
    KJV: But blessed [are] your eyes,
    INT: of you moreover blessed [are] the eyes

    Matthew 16:17 Adj-NMS
    BIB: εἶπεν αὐτῷ Μακάριος εἶ Σίμων
    NAS: said to him, Blessed are you, Simon
    KJV: unto him, Blessed art thou,
    INT: said to him Blessed are you Simon

    Matthew 24:46 Adj-NMS
    BIB: μακάριος ὁ δοῦλος
    NAS: Blessed is that slave whom
    KJV: Blessed [is] that servant,
    INT: Blessed [is] the servant

    Luke 1:45 Adj-NFS
    BIB: καὶ μακαρία ἡ πιστεύσασα
    NAS: And blessed [is] she who believed
    KJV: And blessed [is] she that believed:
    INT: and blessed [is] the [one] having believed

    Luke 6:20 Adj-NMP
    BIB: αὐτοῦ ἔλεγεν Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοί
    NAS: He [began] to say, Blessed [are] you [who are] poor,
    KJV: and said, Blessed [be ye] poor:
    INT: of him said Blessed [are] the poor

    Luke 6:21 Adj-NMP
    BIB: μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες
    NAS: Blessed [are] you who hunger now,
    KJV: Blessed [are ye] that hunger now:
    INT: Blessed [you] who hunger

    Luke 6:21 Adj-NMP
    BIB: ὅτι χορτασθήσεσθε μακάριοι οἱ κλαίοντες
    NAS: for you shall be satisfied. Blessed [are] you who weep
    KJV: ye shall be filled. Blessed [are ye] that weep
    INT: for you will be filled Blessed [you] who weep

    Luke 6:22 Adj-NMP
    BIB: μακάριοί ἐστε ὅταν
    NAS: Blessed are you when men
    KJV: Blessed are ye, when
    INT: Blessed are you when

    Luke 7:23 Adj-NMS
    BIB: καὶ μακάριός ἐστιν ὃς
    NAS: Blessed is he who does not take
    KJV: And blessed is [he], whosoever
    INT: and blessed is who

    Luke 10:23 Adj-NMP
    BIB: ἰδίαν εἶπεν Μακάριοι οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ
    NAS: privately, Blessed [are] the eyes
    KJV: privately, Blessed [are] the eyes
    INT: private he said Blessed [are] the eyes

    Luke 11:27 Adj-NFS
    BIB: εἶπεν αὐτῷ Μακαρία ἡ κοιλία
    NAS: and said to Him, Blessed is the womb
    KJV: unto him, Blessed [is] the womb
    INT: said to him Blessed the womb

    Luke 11:28 Adj-NMP
    BIB: εἶπεν Μενοῦν μακάριοι οἱ ἀκούοντες
    NAS: On the contrary, blessed are those
    KJV: Yea rather, blessed [are] they that hear
    INT: said Yes rather blessed they who hear

    Luke 12:37 Adj-NMP
    BIB: μακάριοι οἱ δοῦλοι
    NAS: Blessed are those slaves
    KJV: Blessed [are] those servants,
    INT: Blessed [are] the servants

    Luke 12:38 Adj-NMP
    BIB: εὕρῃ οὕτως μακάριοί εἰσιν ἐκεῖνοι
    NAS: [them] so, blessed are those
    KJV: find [them] so, blessed are those
    INT: finds [them] thus blessed are those

    Luke 12:43 Adj-NMS
    BIB: μακάριος ὁ δοῦλος
    NAS: Blessed is that slave whom
    KJV: Blessed [is] that servant,
    INT: Blessed [is] the servant

    50 Occurrences

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    3 et erit tamquam lignum transplantatum iuxta rivulos aquarum quod fructum suum dabit in tempore suo et folium eius non defluet et omne quod fecerit prosperabitur
    And he shall be like a tree which is planted near the running waters, which shall bring forth its fruit, in due season. And his leaf shall not fall off: and all whosoever he shall do shall prosper.

    3 καὶ ἔσται ὡς τὸ ξύλον τὸ πεφυτευμένον παρὰ τὰς διεξόδους τῶν ὑδάτων ὃ τὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ δώσει ἐν καιρῷ αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ φύλλον αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἀπορρυήσεται καὶ πάντα ὅσα ἂν ποιῇ κατευοδωθήσεται
    (kai estai ōs to xulon to pephuteumenon para tas diexodous tōn udatōn o ton karpon autou dōsei en kairō autou kai to phullon autou ouk aporruēsetai kai panta osa an poiē kateuodōthēsetai)

    Some of the verses can be tongue twisters.
    Verse 3 in Latin “tamquam lignum transplantatum iuxta rivulos aquarum
    gets trickier in Greek ὡς τὸ ξύλον τὸ πεφυτευμένον παρὰ τὰς διεξόδους τῶν ὑδάτων.
    (ōs to xulon to pephuteumenon para tas diexodous tōn udatōn)
    “like a tree which is planted near the running waters” in English.
    See how many times you can say “pephuteuménon” in a row before missing a syllable.
    κατευοδωθήσεται (kateuodōthēsetai) is another fun tongue twister in ancient Greek. A form of the verb κατευθύνω (kateuthunó: to make straight, direct, guide, put in the right way).
    Thessalonians 3:5 V-AOA-3S
    BIB: δὲ κύριος κατευθύναι ὑμῶν τὰς
    NAS: May the Lord direct your hearts
    KJV: And the Lord direct your hearts
    INT: and [the] Lord may direct your

    The Greek equivalent of the Latin “transplantatumπεφυτευμένον ( pephuteumenon ) is from the verb φυτεύω (phuteuó: to plant):
    Original Word: φυτεύω
    Part of Speech: Verb
    Transliteration: phuteuó
    Phonetic Spelling: (foot-yoo’-o)
    Short Definition: I plant
    Definition: I plant, set.

    The word for “tree” in Greek is ξύλον (xulon).
    Strong’s Concordance:
    xulon: wood
    Original Word: ξύλον, ου, τό
    Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter
    Transliteration: xulon
    Phonetic Spelling: (xoo’-lon)
    Short Definition: a staff, cross, anything made of wood
    Definition: anything made of wood, a piece of wood, a club, staff; the trunk of a tree, used to support the cross-bar of a cross in crucifixion.

    The same word is used for “cross” in The New Testament:
    Luke 23:31 N-DNS
    BIB: τῷ ὑγρῷ ξύλῳ ταῦτα ποιοῦσιν
    NAS: when the tree is green,
    KJV: in a green tree, what shall be done
    INT: the green tree these things they do

    Acts 5:30 N-GNS
    BIB: κρεμάσαντες ἐπὶ ξύλου
    NAS: by hanging Him on a cross.
    KJV: and hanged on a tree.
    INT: having hanged on a tree

    Acts 10:39 N-GNS
    BIB: κρεμάσαντες ἐπὶ ξύλου
    NAS: by hanging Him on a cross.
    KJV: and hanged on a tree:
    INT: having hanged [him] on a tree

    Acts 13:29 N-GNS
    BIB: ἀπὸ τοῦ ξύλου ἔθηκαν εἰς
    NAS: Him, they took Him down from the cross and laid
    KJV: from the tree, and laid
    INT: from the tree they put [him] in

    The “tree” symbolism in Psalm 1 partakes in that throughout the Bible and
    in the Christology of the spiritual and anagogical senses also found in The New Testament. Fr. Haydock explains in his commentary.
    Father Haydock Commentary:
    Ver. 3. Tree. Probably the palm-tree, the emblem of a long life, Job xxviii. 18. The tree of life is watered by the river of living waters, proceeding from the throne of God, who is the source of all grace, Apocalypse xxii. 1., Luke xxi. 33., and John iv. 14. (Calmet) — Those who make good use of favours received, are continually supplied with fresh graces. (Worthington) — And. In the office-book a new verse begins here, though not in Hebrew, which the Vulgate follows. They were not marked by the sacred penman. — Prosper, and be rewarded hereafter, though the just man even among the Jews might be here afflicted. Prosperity was only promised to the nation, as long as it continued faithful. Individuals were in the same condition as Christians. They were to trust in the promises of futurity, though some have very erroneously asserted, that there is no mention of eternal felicity in these holy canticles; (Berthier) Ferrand says, hardly in the Old Testament. (Calmet) — All this verse might perhaps be better understood of the tree. “And its leaf….and whatever it shall produce,” faciet (fructum). (Haydock) — Some trees are always covered with leaves, like the palm-tree, &c. (Menochius)

    null

  7. Going back through the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew versions of Psalm 1 we find a unity of symbolism which runs through sacred scripture from Genesis through the New Testament.
    Keeping in mind the “tree” symbolism in Psalm 1 which partakes in that throughout the Bible and in the Christology of the spiritual and anagogical senses also found in The New Testament as explained in Father Haydock’s Commentary,
    the Magnificat and the Ave Maria should also come to mind in the symbolism of “fructum” (fruit).

    Latin:quod fructum suum dabit
    Greek:ὃ τὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ δώσει
    (o ton karpon autou dōsei)
    English: which shall bring forth its fruit

    The Greek equivalent for the Latin “fructum” is καρπὸν,
    the accusative singular of the masculine noun καρπός (karpós), the word for “fruit” in ancient Greek in the Septuagint translation of Psalm 1.
    The Hebrew word is פֶּ֫רִי “peri” : Phonetic Spelling: (per-ee’).
    From “parah“: to bear fruit, be fruitful.
    parah:
    Original Word: פָּרָה
    Part of Speech: Verb
    Transliteration: parah
    Phonetic Spelling: (paw-raw’)
    Short Definition: fruitful

    From Genesis 1:22
    BIB: אֱלֹהִ֖ים לֵאמֹ֑ר פְּר֣וּ וּרְב֗וּ וּמִלְא֤וּ
    NAS: them, saying, Be fruitful and multiply,
    KJV: them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply,
    INT: God saying be fruitful and multiply and fill

    Examples:
    Genesis 1:11
    BIB: פְּרִ֞י עֹ֤שֶׂה פְּרִי֙ לְמִינ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר
    NAS: bearing fruit after their kind
    KJV: yielding fruit after his kind,
    INT: fruit bearing fruit their kind whose

    Genesis 1:12
    BIB: וְעֵ֧ץ עֹֽשֶׂה־ פְּרִ֛י אֲשֶׁ֥ר זַרְעוֹ־
    NAS: bearing fruit with seed
    KJV: yielding fruit, whose seed
    INT: and trees bearing fruit with seed

    Genesis 30:2
    BIB: מָנַ֥ע מִמֵּ֖ךְ פְּרִי־ בָֽטֶן׃
    NAS: has withheld from you the fruit of the womb?
    KJV: stead, who hath withheld from thee the fruit of the womb?
    INT: has withheld at the fruit belly

    Exodus 10:15
    BIB: וְאֵת֙ כָּל־ פְּרִ֣י הָעֵ֔ץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר
    NAS: and all the fruit of the trees
    KJV: of the land, and all the fruit of the trees
    INT: of the land and all the fruit of the trees after

    Jeremiah 11:16
    BIB: רַֽעֲנָן֙ יְפֵ֣ה פְרִי־ תֹ֔אַר קָרָ֥א
    NAS: beautiful in fruit and form;
    KJV: [and] of goodly fruit: with the noise
    INT: A green beautiful fruit and form called

    Ezekiel 17:23
    BIB: עָנָף֙ וְעָ֣שָׂה פֶ֔רִי וְהָיָ֖ה לְאֶ֣רֶז
    NAS: and bear fruit and become
    KJV: and bear fruit, and be a goodly
    INT: boughs and bear fruit and become cedar

    biblesuite.com/greek/2590.htm
    Strong’s Concordance:
    karpos: fruit
    Original Word: καρπός, οῦ, ὁ
    Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine
    Transliteration: karpos
    Phonetic Spelling: (kar-pos’)
    Short Definition: fruit, result, gain
    Definition: (a) fruit, generally vegetable, sometimes animal, (b) met: fruit, deed, action, result, (c) profit, gain.
    2590 karpós – properly, fruit; (figuratively) everything done in true partnership with Christ, i.e. a believer (a branch) lives in union with Christ (the Vine). By definition, fruit (2590 karpós) results from two life-streams – the Lord living His life through ours – to yield what is eternal (cf. 1 Jn 4:17).

    Jn 15:1,2: “1 I am the true vine, and My Father is the vine-dresser. 2 Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit (2590 karpós), He takes away; and every branch that bears fruit, He prunes it so that it may bear more fruit” (NASU).

    Thayer’s Greek Lexicon:
    STRONGS NT 2590: καρπός

    καρπός, καρποῦ, ὁ (cf. Latin carpo; A-S. hearf-est (harvest i. e. the ingathering of crops); Curtius, § 42); Hebrew פְּרִי; from Homer down; fruit;

    1. properly: the fruit of trees, Matthew 12:33; Matthew 21:19; Mark 11:14; Luke 6:44; Luke 13:6f; of vines, Matthew 21:34; Mark 12:2; Luke 20:10; 1 Corinthians 9:7; of the fields, Luke 12:17; Mark 4:29; 2 Timothy 2:6; (James 5:7); βλαστάνειν, James 5:18; ποιεῖν, to bear fruit (after the Hebrew פְּרִי עָשָׂה (see ποιέω, I. 1 e.)), Matthew 3:10; Matthew 7:17-19; Matthew 13:26; Luke 3:9; Luke 11:43; Luke 8:8; Luke 13:9; Revelation 22:2; διδόναι, Matthew 13:8; Mark 4:7f; φέρειν, Matthew 7:18 T WH; John 12:24; John 15:2, 4f; (trop. John 15:8, 16); ἀποδιδόναι, to yield fruit, Revelation 22:2; to render (pay) the fruit, Matthew 21:41; by a Hebraism, ὁ καρπός τῆς κοιλίας, i. e. the unborn child, Luke 1:42 (בֶּטֶן פְּרִי, Deuteronomy 28:4, where the Sept. τά ἔκγονα τῆς κοιλίας); τῆς ὀσφύος the fruit of one’s loins, i. e. his progeny, his posterity, Acts 2:30 (Genesis 30:2; Psalm 126:3 (); (); Micah 6:7); cf. Winer’s Grammar, 33 (32).

    2. Metaphorically, that which originates or comes from something; an effect, result;

    a. equivalent to ἔργον, work, act, deed: with the genitive of the author, τοῦ πνεύματος, Galatians 5:22; τοῦ φωτός, Ephesians 5:9 (Rec. τοῦ πνεύματος); τῆς δικαιοσύνης, Philippians 1:11 (cf.

    b. below); of Christian charity, i. e. benefit, Romans 15:28; καρπόν πολύν φέρειν, to accomplish much (for the propagation of Christianity and its furtherance in the souls of men), John 15:8, 16; used of men’s deeds as exponents of their hearts (cf. Winer’s Grammar, 372 (348)), Matthew 7:16, 20; ἀγαθοί, James 3:17; καρποί τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ, deeds required for the attainment of salvation in the kingdom of God, Matthew 21:43; ποιεῖν καρπούς ἀξίους τῆς μετανοίας, to exhibit deeds agreeing with a change of heart, Matthew 3:8; Luke 3:8 (cf.ἄξια τῆς μετανοίας ἔργα πράσσειν, Acts 26:20), b. advantage, profit, utility: Philippians 1:22; Philippians 4:17; ἔχειν καρπόν, to get fruit, Romans 1:13; Romans 6:21f; τῆς δικαιοσύνης, benefit arising from righteousness (others make it genitive of apposition, Winer’s Grammar, § 59, 8 a.), Hebrews 12:11; which consists in righteousness (genitive of apposition), James 3:18 (cf. Philippians 1:11 in a. above, and Meyer ad loc.; Proverbs 11:30; Amos 6:12).

    c. by a Hebraism οἱ καρποί τῶν χειλέων, praises, which are presented to God as a thank-offering: Hebrews 13:15 (Hosea 14:2; Proverbs 12:14; Proverbs 29:49 ()). Cf. Winers Grammar, 33 (32) note 1.

    d. συνάγειν καρπόν εἰς ζωήν αἰώνιον, to gather fruit (i. e. a reaped harvest) into life eternal (as into a granary), is used in figurative discourse of those who by their labors have fitted souls to obtain eternal life, John 4:36.

    Matthew 7:16 N-GMP
    BIB: ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν αὐτῶν ἐπιγνώσεσθε
    NAS: You will know them by their fruits. Grapes
    KJV: by their fruits. Do men gather grapes
    INT: By the fruits of them you will know

    Matthew 7:17 N-AMP
    BIB: δένδρον ἀγαθὸν καρποὺς καλοὺς ποιεῖ
    NAS: bears good fruit, but the bad tree
    KJV: good fruit; but
    INT: tree good good fruits good produces

    Matthew 7:18 N-AMP
    BIB: δένδρον σαπρὸν καρποὺς καλοὺς ποιεῖν
    NAS: produce good fruit.
    KJV: bring forth good fruit.
    INT: a tree bad fruits good to produce

    Matthew 7:19 N-AMS
    BIB: μὴ ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλὸν ἐκκόπτεται
    NAS: good fruit is cut down
    KJV: forth good fruit is hewn down, and
    INT: not producing fruit good is cut down

    Matthew 7:20 N-GMP
    BIB: ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν αὐτῶν ἐπιγνώσεσθε
    NAS: you will know them by their fruits.
    KJV: by their fruits ye shall know them.
    INT: by the fruits of them you will know

    Matthew 12:33 N-AMS
    BIB: καὶ τὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ καλόν
    NAS: the tree good and its fruit good, or
    KJV: and his fruit good; or else
    INT: and the fruit of it good

    Strong’s Concordance:
    parah: to bear fruit, be fruitful
    Original Word: פָּרָה
    Part of Speech: Verb
    Transliteration: parah
    Phonetic Spelling: (paw-raw’)
    Short Definition: fruitful

    Word Origin
    a prim. root
    Definition
    to bear fruit, be fruitful
    NASB Translation
    bear fruit (2), bearing…fruit (1), become fruitful (1), flourishes (1), fruitful (18), fruitful tree (1), increased (1), made me fruitful (1), make him fruitful (1), make you fruitful (3).

    Brown-Driver-Briggs
    [מָּרָה] verb bear fruit, be fruitful (Late Hebrew = Biblical Hebrew 1, מְּרִי = Biblical Hebrew; Phoenician פר fruit; Ethiopic , blossom, bear fruit; Assyrian pir’u, posterity; compare also ᵑ7 מֵּירָא Syriac fruit, and BaZMG xii (1887), 604): —

    Qal Perfect3plural מָּרוּ Exodus 1:7; 1plural consecutive וּפָרִינוּ Genesis 26:22, etc.; Imperfect3masculine singular יִפְרֶה Isaiah 11:1, etc.; Imperative masculine singular מְּרֵה Genesis 35:11, masculine plural מְּרוּ Genesis 1:22 +; Participle active מֹּרֶה Deuteronomy 29:17, feminine מֹּרִיָּה Ezekiel 19:10; Isaiah 17:6, מֹּרָת (Ges§ 80g; for *מֹּרַיַת LagBN 81) Genesis 49:22 (twice in verse); —

    1 of men and animals, Exodus 23:30 (E) Genesis 26:22 (J); especially + רבה Jeremiah 3:16; Jeremiah 23:3; Ezekiel 36:11; Genesis 35:11; Genesis 47:27 (P), and שָׁרַץ (P) Genesis 8:17; Genesis 9:7; Exodus 1:7, ׳מְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ וגו Genesis 1:22,28; Genesis 9:1.

    2 of vine, גֶּפֶן מֹּרִיָּה Isaiah 32:12 fruitful vine, so Psalm 128:3 (simile of wife); compare (in figurative of Israel) Ezekiel 19:10; in Messianic prediction Isaiah 11:1 a shoot from his [Jesse’s] roots shall bear fruit; with accusative ראֹשׁ ׳שֹׁרֶשׁ פ figurative, Deuteronomy 29:17 a root bearing gall (as its fruit); יִפְרוּ יֶשַׁע Isaiah 45:8 is dubious, read perhaps 3 feminine singular תֵּפֶר let earth be fruitful in salvation (Oort and others); Participle f., as substantive, הַמֹּרַיָּה the fruit-bearer, poetic for tree, Isaiah 17:6 (compare [סָעִיף]

    2); so בֵּן מֹּרָת Genesis 49:22 (twice in verse) Joseph is son of a fruit-bearer, i.e. a fruitful bough.

    Hiph`il 1. cause to bear fruit,

    2 make fruitful, subject ׳י with accusative of man or people:

    1 Perfect3masculine singular suffix הִפְרַנִי Genesis 41:52 (E).

    2 in P, וְהִפְרֵתִ֫י Genesis 17:6,20 (רֵיתֵ֫י-), + הִרְבָּה Leviticus 26:9 (H); Imperfect3masculine singular jussive יַפְרְךָ וְיַרְבְּךָ Genesis 28:3, וַיֶּפֶר Psalm 105:24; Participle הִנְנִי מַפְרְךָ וְהִרְבִּיתִךָ Genesis 48:4.

    3 shew fruitfullness, bear fruit (Ges§ 53 c, d, g): Imperfect3masculine singular יַפְרִיא Hosea 13:15 (as if from פרא).

    Genesis 8:17
    BIB: וְשָֽׁרְצ֣וּ בָאָ֔רֶץ וּפָר֥וּ וְרָב֖וּ עַל־
    NAS: on the earth, and be fruitful and multiply
    KJV: in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply
    INT: may breed the earth and be fruitful and multiply on

    Genesis 9:1
    BIB: וַיֹּ֧אמֶר לָהֶ֛ם פְּר֥וּ וּרְב֖וּ וּמִלְא֥וּ
    NAS: and said to them, Be fruitful and multiply,
    KJV: and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply,
    INT: and his sons and said to them be fruitful and multiply and fill

    Genesis 9:7
    BIB: וְאַתֶּ֖ם פְּר֣וּ וּרְב֑וּ שִׁרְצ֥וּ
    NAS: As for you, be fruitful and multiply;
    KJV: And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply;
    INT: you you be fruitful and multiply Populate

    Genesis 17:6
    BIB: וְהִפְרֵתִ֤י אֹֽתְךָ֙ בִּמְאֹ֣ד
    NAS: I will make you exceedingly fruitful,
    KJV: thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make
    INT: will make exceedingly exceedingly

    biblesuite.com/hebrew/6509.htm

  8. Thayer’s Greek Lexicon makes an interesting point in citing the Gospel of St. John for a figurative use of καρπόν and fruit symbolism:
    συνάγειν καρπόν εἰς ζωήν αἰώνιον, to gather fruit (i. e. a reaped harvest) into life eternal (as into a granary), is used in figurative discourse of those who by their labors have fitted souls to obtain eternal life, John 4:36. ”

    John 4:36
    Greek: ὁ θερίζων μισθὸν λαμβάνει καὶ συνάγει καρπὸν εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον, ἵνα ὁ σπείρων ὁμοῦ χαίρῃ καὶ ὁ θερίζων.

    John 4:36
    John 4 Biblos Interlinear Bible

    ὁ θερίζων μισθὸν λαμβάνει καὶ συνάγει καρπὸν
    ho therizōn misthon lambanei kai synagei karpon
    he that reaps a reward receives and gathers fruit

    εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον ἵνα ὁ σπείρων ὁμοῦ χαίρῃ καὶ ὁ θερίζων
    eis zōēn aiōnion hina ho speirōn homou chairē kai ho therizōn
    unto life eternal that he that sows together might rejoice and he that reaps
    interlinearbible.org/john/4-36.htm

    Latin Vulgate:
    et qui metit mercedem accipit et congregat fructum in vitam aeternam ut et qui seminat simul gaudeat et qui metit

    Douay-Rheims:
    And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life everlasting: that both he that soweth, and he that reapeth, may rejoice together.

    King James Version:
    And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life eternal: that both he that soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice together.

    ὁ θερίζων μισθὸν λαμβάνει καὶ συνάγει καρπὸν
    (ho therizōn misthon lambanei kai synagei karpon)
    et qui metit mercedem accipit et congregat fructum
    and he that reapeth receiveth wages and gathereth fruit

    εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον, ἵνα ὁ σπείρων ὁμοῦ χαίρῃ καὶ ὁ θερίζων.
    (eis zōēn aiōnion hina ho speirōn homou chairē kai ho therizōn)
    in vitam aeternam ut et qui seminat simul gaudeat et qui metit
    unto life everlasting: that both he that soweth, and he that reapeth, may rejoice together

  9. brilliant – ‘the unity of symbolism that runs through sacred scripture’.

      the Greek word Klasis has an interesting usage in the Septuagint and the NT this word, translated as ‘break’ or ‘breaking’ or also ‘fragments’. It is used only in the circumstance of temple sacrifice in the Septuagint; in the NT ‘the breaking of the bread’ of the Eucharist. All other mentions of breaking uses a different verb. This is surely another rienforcement that the ‘breaking of the bread’ is sacrificial. The only other use for klasis  is miraculous – a conjugation of the verb is used to identify the miraculous left over fragments of bread from the five loaves which filled ‘twelve baskets’. It’s a small step to think of the twelve apostles soon take up their roles of ‘feeding’ the Lord’s sheep with the ‘bread of life’ – ‘true food’.

  10. Good point. Eucharistic symbolism at the linguistic level.
    The Greek word κλάσις (klasis) in Strong’s Concordance:
    biblesuite.com/greek/2800.htm
    Strong’s Concordance:
    klasis: a breaking
    Original Word: κλάσις, εως, ἡ
    Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine
    Transliteration: klasis
    Phonetic Spelling: (klas’-is)
    Short Definition: a breaking
    Definition: a breaking.
    Word Origin
    from klaó
    Definition
    a breaking
    NASB Translation
    breaking (2).

    STRONGS NT 2800: κλάσις

    κλάσις, κλασεως, ἡ (κλάω, which see), a breaking: τοῦ ἄρτου, Luke 24:35; Acts 2:42. (Plato, Theophrastus, others.)

    There is an example cited in Luke 24:35:
    καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐξηγοῦντο τὰ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ καὶ ὡς ἐγνώσθη αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ κλάσει τοῦ ἄρτου.
    et ipsi narrabant quae gesta erant in via et quomodo cognoverunt eum in fractione panis
    And they told what things were done in the way; and how they knew him in the breaking of the bread.
    The phrase in Greek ἐν τῇ κλάσει τοῦ ἄρτου is translated as “in fractione panis” (fractione for κλάσει).
    Acts 2:42:
    ἦσαν δὲ προσκαρτεροῦντες τῇ διδαχῇ τῶν ἀποστόλων καὶ τῇ κοινωνίᾳ τῇ κλάσει τοῦ ἄρτου καὶ ταῖς προσευχαῖς.
    erant autem perseverantes in doctrina apostolorum et communicatione fractionis panis et orationibus
    And they were persevering in the doctrine of the apostles, and in the communication of the breaking of bread, and in prayers.
    The translation of κοινωνίᾳ τῇ κλάσει τοῦ ἄρτου in Latin as “communicatione fractionis panis” in the Vulgate. Although there might be some debate over translating κοινωνίᾳ (koinōnia) as “communicatione” in Latin. A debate for another time.

    Strong’s Greek 2800
    2 Occurrences

    κλάσει — 2 Occ.

    Luke 24:35 N-DFS
    BIB: ἐν τῇ κλάσει τοῦ ἄρτου
    NAS: He was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread.
    KJV: of them in breaking of bread.
    INT: in the breaking of the bread
    Acts 2:42 N-DFS
    BIB: κοινωνίᾳ τῇ κλάσει τοῦ ἄρτου
    NAS: and to fellowship, to the breaking of bread
    KJV: and in breaking of bread,
    INT: in fellowship the breaking of the bread

    2 Occurrences

    The verb is κλάω (klaó: to break).
    Original Word: κλάω
    Part of Speech: Verb
    Transliteration: klaó
    Phonetic Spelling: (klah’-o)
    Short Definition: I break
    Definition: I break (in pieces), break bread.

    Thayer’s Greek Lexicon:
    STRONGS NT 2806: κλάω

    κλάω; 1 aorist ἔκλασα; passive (present participle κλώμενος, 1 Corinthians 11:24 R G (see below)); 1 aorist ἐκλασθην (Romans 11:20 L Tr); (from Homer down); to break: used in the N. T. of the breaking of bread (see ἄρτος, 1), Matthew 14:19; Matthew 15:36; Matthew 26:26; Mark 8:6; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19; (); Acts 2:46; Acts 20:7, 11; Acts 27:35; 1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 11:24; with εἰς τινας added, a pregnant construction, equivalent to ‘to break and distribute among’ etc. (see εἰς, C. 1), Mark 8:19; metaphorically, τό σῶμα, shattered, as it were, by a violent death, 1 Corinthians 11:21 R G. (Compare: ἐκκλάω, κατακλάω.)

    Matthew 14:19 V-APA-NMS
    BIB: εὐλόγησεν καὶ κλάσας ἔδωκεν τοῖς
    NAS: He blessed [the food], and breaking the loaves
    KJV: and brake, and gave
    INT: he blessed and having broken he gave to the
    Matthew 15:36 V-AIA-3S
    BIB: καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἐδίδου
    NAS: and giving thanks, He broke them and started giving
    KJV: and gave thanks, and brake [them], and
    INT: and having given thanks he broke and gave

    Matthew 26:26 V-AIA-3S
    BIB: καὶ εὐλογήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ δοὺς
    NAS: and after a blessing, He broke [it] and gave
    KJV: blessed [it], and brake [it], and
    INT: and having blessed broke and having given

    Mark 8:6 V-AIA-3S
    BIB: ἄρτους εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἐδίδου
    NAS: He gave thanks and broke them, and started giving
    KJV: and gave thanks, and brake, and
    INT: loaves having given thanks he broke and gave
    biblesuite.com/greek/2806.htm

    The Latin translation of Mark 8:6 uses “fregit” for the Greek ἔκλασεν, the form of κλάω in the verse, (“fregit is the third-person singular perfect active indicative of the Latin verb frangō):
    frangō, frangere, frēgī, fractum.
    1.I break, shatter
    2.I vanquish, defeat utterly

    Mark 8:6 in Greek and Latin:
    ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 8:6 Greek NT: WH / UBS
    καὶ παραγγέλλει τῷ ὄχλῳ ἀναπεσεῖν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· καὶ λαβὼν τοὺς ἑπτὰ ἄρτους εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἐδίδου τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ ἵνα παρατιθῶσιν, καὶ παρέθηκαν τῷ ὄχλῳ.
    Latin: Biblia Sacra Vulgata
    et praecepit turbae discumbere supra terram et accipiens septem panes gratias agens fregit et dabat discipulis suis ut adponerent et adposuerunt turbae
    Douay-Rheims:
    And taking the seven loaves, giving thanks, he broke, and gave to his disciples for to set before them; and they set them before the people.
    King James Version:
    And he commanded the people to sit down on the ground: and he took the seven loaves, and gave thanks, and brake, and gave to his disciples to set before them; and they did set them before the people.

  11. Leviticus 1.17 and 2.6 in the LXX use the same verb at the altar of sacrifice.

    Here’s a page with some interesting references:

    www.scripturecatholic.com/septuagint.html

  12. Good point and site.
    They need to teach this in our Catholic high schools and colleges to provide the educational foundation for training future priests.
    Studying the Latin of the Vulgate is a good way to prepare for being able to say Mass.

    Psalm 2 Latin and Douay-Rheims:
    1 quare turbabuntur gentes et tribus meditabuntur inania
    Why have the Gentiles raged, and the people devised vain things?

    2 consurgent reges terrae et principes tractabunt pariter adversum Dominum et adversum christum eius
    The kings of the earth stood up, and the princes met together, against the Lord and against his Christ.

    3 disrumpamus vincula eorum et proiciamus a nobis laqueos eorum
    Let us break their bonds asunder: and let us cast away their yoke from us.

    4 habitator caeli ridebit Dominus subsannabit eos
    He that dwelleth in heaven shall laugh at them: and the Lord shall deride them.

    5 tunc loquetur ad eos in ira sua et in furore suo conturbabit eos
    Then shall he speak to them in his anger, and trouble them in his rage.

    6 ego autem orditus sum regem meum super Sion montem sanctum suum adnuntiabo Dei praeceptum
    But I am appointed king by him over Sion his holy mountain, preaching his commandment.

    7 Dominus dixit ad me filius meus es tu ego hodie genui te
    The Lord hath said to me: Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee.

    8 postula a me et dabo tibi gentes hereditatem tuam et possessionem tuam terminos terrae
    Ask of me, and I will give thee the Gentiles for thy inheritance, and the utmost parts of the earth for thy possession.

    9 pasces eos in virga ferrea ut vas figuli conteres eos
    Thou shalt rule them with a rod of iron, and shalt break them in pieces like a potter’s vessel.

    10 nunc ergo reges intellegite erudimini iudices terrae
    And now, O ye kings, understand: receive instruction, you that judge the earth.

    11 servite Domino in timore et exultate in tremore
    Serve ye the Lord with fear: and rejoice unto him with trembling.

    12 adorate pure ne forte irascatur et pereatis de via (2-13) cum exarserit post paululum furor eius beati omnes qui sperant in eum
    Embrace discipline, lest at any time the Lord be angry, and you perish from the just way. When his wrath shall be kindled in a short time, blessed are all they that trust in him.

    Fr. Haydock Commentary:
    haydock1859.tripod.com/id727.html

  13. Psalm 2 Greek OT: Septuagint with Diacritics

    1 ἵνα τί ἐφρύαξαν ἔθνη καὶ λαοὶ ἐμελέτησαν κενά
    ina ti ephruaxan ethnē kai laoi emeletēsan kena
    Why have the Gentiles raged, and the people devised vain things?

    2 παρέστησαν οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες συνήχθησαν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ κατὰ τοῦ κυρίου καὶ κατὰ τοῦ χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ διάψαλμα
    parestēsan hoi basileis tēs gēs kai hoi archontes sunēchthēsan epi to auto kata tou kuriou kai kata tou christou autou diapsalma
    The kings of the earth stood up, and the princes met together, against the Lord and against his Christ.

    3 διαρρήξωμεν τοὺς δεσμοὺς αὐτῶν καὶ ἀπορρίψωμεν ἀφ’ ἡμῶν τὸν ζυγὸν αὐτῶν
    diarrēxōmen tous desmous autōn kai aporripsōmen aph’ ēmōn ton zugon autōn
    Let us break their bonds asunder: and let us cast away their yoke from us.

    4 ὁ κατοικῶν ἐν οὐρανοῖς ἐκγελάσεται αὐτούς καὶ ὁ κύριος ἐκμυκτηριεῖ αὐτούς
    ho katoikōn en ouranois ekgelasetai autous kai ho kurios ekmuktēriei autous
    He that dwelleth in heaven shall laugh at them: and the Lord shall deride them.

    5 τότε λαλήσει πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἐν ὀργῇ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ θυμῷ αὐτοῦ ταράξει αὐτούς
    tote lalēsei pros autous en orgē autou kai en tō thumō autou taraxei autous
    Then shall he speak to them in his anger, and trouble them in his rage.

    6 ἐγὼ δὲ κατεστάθην βασιλεὺς ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ σιων ὄρος τὸ ἅγιον αὐτοῦ
    egō de katestathēn basileus up’ autou epi siōn oros to agion autou
    But I am appointed king by him over Sion his holy mountain, preaching his commandment.

    7 διαγγέλλων τὸ πρόσταγμα κυρίου κύριος εἶπεν πρός με υἱός μου εἶ σύ ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε
    diangengōn to prostagma kuriou kurios eipen pros me uios mou ei su egō sēmeron gegennēka se
    The Lord hath said to me: Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee.

    8 αἴτησαι παρ’ ἐμοῦ καὶ δώσω σοι ἔθνη τὴν κληρονομίαν σου καὶ τὴν κατάσχεσίν σου τὰ πέρατα τῆς γῆς
    aitēsai par’ emou kai dōsō soi ethnē tēn klēronomian sou kai tēn kataschesin sou ta perata tēs gēs
    Ask of me, and I will give thee the Gentiles for thy inheritance, and the utmost parts of the earth for thy possession.

    9 ποιμανεῖς αὐτοὺς ἐν ῥάβδῳ σιδηρᾷ ὡς σκεῦος κεραμέως συντρίψεις αὐτούς
    poimaneis autous en rabdō sidēra hōs skeuos kerameōs suntripseis autous
    Thou shalt rule them with a rod of iron, and shalt break them in pieces like a potter’s vessel.

    10 καὶ νῦν βασιλεῖς σύνετε παιδεύθητε πάντες οἱ κρίνοντες τὴν γῆν
    kai nun basileis sunete paideuthēte pantes hoi krinontes tēn gēn
    And now, O ye kings, understand: receive instruction, you that judge the earth.

    11 δουλεύσατε τῷ κυρίῳ ἐν φόβῳ καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε αὐτῷ ἐν τρόμῳ
    douleusate tō kuriō en phobō kai agalliasthe autō en tromō
    Serve ye the Lord with fear: and rejoice unto him with trembling.

    12 δράξασθε παιδείας μήποτε ὀργισθῇ κύριος καὶ ἀπολεῖσθε ἐξ ὁδοῦ δικαίας ὅταν
    draxasthe paideias mēpote orgisthē kurios kai apoleisthe ex odou dikaias otan
    ἐκκαυθῇ ἐν τάχει ὁ θυμὸς αὐτοῦ μακάριοι πάντες οἱ πεποιθότες ἐπ’ αὐτῷ
    ekkauthē en tachei ho thumos autou makarioi pantes hoi pepoithotes ep’ autō
    Embrace discipline, lest at any time the Lord be angry, and you perish from the just way.
    When his wrath shall be kindled in a short time, blessed are all they that trust in him.

    Psalm 2:11
    NASB © Hebrew Transliteration Strong’s Definition Origin
    Worship עִבְד֣וּ (iv·du) 5647 to work, serve a prim. root
    the LORD יְהוָ֣ה (Yah·weh) 3068 the proper name of the God of Israel from havah
    with reverence בְּיִרְאָ֑ה (be·yir·’ah) 3374 a fear from yare
    And rejoice וְ֝גִ֗ילוּ (ve·gi·lu) 1523 to rejoice a prim. root
    with trembling. בִּרְעָדָֽה׃ (bir·’a·dah) 7461b a trembling fem. of raad

    KJV Lexicon
    Serve
    `abad (aw-bad’)
    to work (in any sense); by implication, to serve, till, (causatively) enslave, etc.
    ——————————————————————————–
    the LORD
    Yhovah (yeh-ho-vaw’)
    (the) self-Existent or Eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God — Jehovah, the Lord.
    ——————————————————————————–
    with fear
    yir’ah (yir-aw’)
    fear (also used as infinitive); morally, reverence — dreadful, exceedingly, fear(-fulness).
    ——————————————————————————–
    and rejoice
    giyl (gheel)
    to spin round (under the influence of any violent emotion), i.e. usually rejoice, or (as cringing) fear — be glad, joy, be joyful, rejoice.
    ——————————————————————————–
    with trembling
    ra`ad (rah’-ad)
    a shudder — trembling.

    New American Standard (©1995)
    Worship the LORD with reverence And rejoice with trembling.
    King James Bible
    Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice with trembling.

    American King James Version
    Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice with trembling.

    American Standard Version
    Serve Jehovah with fear, And rejoice with trembling.

    Darby Bible Translation
    Serve Jehovah with fear, and rejoice with trembling.

    English Revised Version
    Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice with trembling.

    Webster’s Bible Translation
    Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice with trembling.

    World English Bible
    Serve Yahweh with fear, and rejoice with trembling.

    Young’s Literal Translation
    Serve ye Jehovah with fear, And rejoice with trembling.

    biblelexicon.org/psalms/2-11.htm

    Strong’s Concordance:
    abad: to work, serve
    Original Word: עָבַד
    Part of Speech: Verb
    Transliteration: abad
    Phonetic Spelling: (aw-bad’)
    Short Definition: serve

    Word Origin
    a prim. root
    Definition
    to work, serve
    NASB Translation
    become slaves (1), been slaves (1), bondage (2), burdened (2), cultivate (7), cultivated (2), cultivates (1), do (6), do the work (1), enslaved (3), given (1), holding in bondage (1), imposed (1), keep (2), labor (3), laborers* (2), make servant (1), make slaves (2), manufacturers (1), observe (1), perform (9), performed (2), plowed (1), rendered (1), serve (141), served (52), serves (2), serving (5), slave (1), slaves (1), subject (1), till (1), tiller (1), tiller* (1), tills (2), use as slaves (1), used (1), uses services (1), work (7), worked (2), workers (2), working (1), worship (7), worshipers (6).

    Brown-Driver-Briggs:

    עָבַד290 verb work, serve (Old Aramaic עבד do make, especially Nabataean, Palmyrene (often), Lzb331f. Cook86, so ᵑ7 עֲבַד, Syriac (very often); but also Old Aramaic Phoenician עבד slave, vassal (and in many proper names), ᵑ7 עַבְדָּא, Syriac id.; Assyrian abdu, id. (rare); Late Hebrew עָבַד serve, performs acts of worship (with accusative of congnate meaning with verb), and derivatives; Arabic worship, obey (God); compare WeSkizzen iii. 165; Heid. 141, II. enslave; slave, worshiper; Sabean עבד id. DHMSüdar. Alt. p. 18; GerberVerb. Denom. 14 ff. thinks be slave, serve (Qal) and enslave (Hiph`il) are denominative, compare also NöZMG xl (1886), 741); —

    Qal272 Perfect3masculine singular ׳ע Ezekiel 29:18 +; suffix עֲבָדוֺ Malachi 3:18 +; 3 masculine plural עָֽבְדוּ Deuteronomy 7:4; עָבָ֑דוּ Numbers 4:26, + 64 t. Perfect; Imperfect3masculine singular יַעֲבֹד Genesis 25:23 +; suffix יַעַבְדֵ֫נִי Exodus 4:23; יַעַבְדֶ֫נּוּ Psalm 22:31; 2 Kings 10:18; 3masculine plural יַעַבְדוּ Deuteronomy 12:30 +; יַעֲבֹ֑דוּ Genesis 15:14 (Dr§ 103) Job 36:11; 2masculine plural תַּעַבְדוּן Exodus 3:12, תַּעֲבֹד֑וּן Joshua 24:15, + 99 t. Imperfect; (תָּעָבְדֵם, נָָֽעָבְדֵם see

    Hoph`al); Imperative עֲבֹד 1 Samuel 26:19; suffix עָבְדֵהוּ 1 Chronicles 28:9; עִבְדוּ Exodus 5:18 15t.; עֲבֹ֑דוּ Ezekiel 20:39; suffix עִבְדֻהוּ 1 Samuel 7:3; Infinitive construct עֲבֹד Malachi 3:14 +; עֲבָדֿ Jeremiah 34:9,10; suffix עָבְדוֺ Jeremiah 27:6 +, etc.; Participle עֹבֵד Genesis 4:2 +; plural עֹבְדִים Numbers 18:21 +; construct עֹבְדֵי Psalm 97:7 +; suffix עֹבְדָיו 2 Kings 10:19; עֹבְדֵיהֶם Zechariah 2:13; —

    1 labour, work, do work: absolute Exodus 20:9 = Exodus 34:21 = Deuteronomy 5:13 (4th word); Exodus 5:18 (E) Ecclesiastes 5:11; with accusative of thing, till the ground Genesis 2:5; Genesis 3:23; Genesis 4:2,12 (J), 2 Samuel 9:10; Isaiah 30:24; Jeremiah 27:11; Zechariah 13:5; Proverbs 12:11; Proverbs 28:19 object omitted Deuteronomy 15:19; Ezekiel 48:19; vineyard Deuteronomy 28:39; garden Genesis 2:16 (J); עֹבְרֵי פִשְׁתִּים Isaiah 19:9 workers in flax; עֹבְדֵ(יׅ הָעִיר Ezekiel 48:18,19 labourers of the city; עֲבֹדָתוֺ ׳ע Isaiah 28:21 work his work (only here of God, “” עשׂה מַעֲשֵׂהוּ); עבדה על ׳ע Ezekiel 29:18 serve a military service against.

    2 work for another, serve him by labour: absolute Exodus 21:2 (E); with accusative pers Genesis 29:15; Genesis 31:6; Exodus 21:6 (E) Deuteronomy 15:12,18; Malachi 3:17; Jeremiah 34:14, king his people 1 Kings 12:7; subject animals Jeremiah 27:6; Job 39:9; with accusative of person and thing Genesis 30:26 (twice in verse); Genesis 30:29 (J); with לְ person 2 Samuel 16:19; עִם Genesis 29:25,30 (E) Leviticus 25:40 (P); עִמָּדִי Genesis 29:27 (E); לִפְנֵי 2 Samuel 16:19 (twice in verse); with בְּ of price Genesis 29:18,20,25; Genesis 31:41 (E) Hosea 12:13; Ezekiel 29:20; with בְּ personwork by means of another, use him as slave, Exodus 1:14; Leviticus 25:39,46 (P) Jeremiah 22:13; Jeremiah 25:14; Jeremiah 27:7; Jeremiah 30:8; Jeremiah 34:9,10.

    3 serve as subjects: usually with accusative, their own chiefs or kings Judges 9:28 (twice in verse); Judges 9:38; 1 Samuel 11:1; 1 Kings 5:1 +; other kings, by tribute Psalm 18:44 = 2 Samuel 22:44; Jeremiah 27:7; Jeremiah 28:14; 2 Kings 25:24 +, other nations 2 Samuel 10:19; Jeremiah 40:9; Zechariah 2:13 +, kings other kings 2 Kings 18:7 +, with לְ, 1 Samuel 4:9 (twice in verse); מַס עֹבֵד Genesis 49:15 (J) Joshua 16:10; 1 Kings 9:21 (see מַס); with בְּ person, work with, i.e. use as subjects, impose tribute upon, Jeremiah 25:14; Jeremiah 27:7; Jeremiah 30:8; Ezekiel 34:27.

    4 serve God:

    a. with accusative ׳י, Exodus 3:12; Exodus 4:23; Exodus 7:16; Exodus 7:26 (JE), Psalm 22:31; Job 21:15; Malachi 3:14 +; with accusative of person and thing Exodus 10:26 (E); accusative of person omitted, Jeremiah 2:20 (read אֶעֱבוֺד Kt), עבד זבח ומנחה Isaiah 19:21 serve with peace-offering and grain-offering; עבד עֲבֹדָה Exodus 13:5 (of מַצֹּת).

    b. other gods, with accusative ׳א Deuteronomy 7:16; Deuteronomy 12:2,30 ; אלהים אחרים Deuteronomy 7:4; Deuteronomy 8:19; Deuteronomy 11:16; Deuteronomy 13:7; Deuteronomy 13:14; Deuteronomy 17:3; Deuteronomy 28:14,36,64; Deuteronomy 29:25; Deuteronomy 30:17; Deuteronomy 31:20; Joshua 23:16; Joshua 24:2,16; Judges 2:10; Judges 10:13; 1 Samuel 8:8; 1 Samuel 26:19; 1 Kings 9:6,9; 2 Kings 17:35; 2Chronicles 7:19,22; Jeremiah 11:10; Jeremiah 13:10; Jeremiah 16:11,13; Jeremiah 22:9; Jeremiah 25:6; Jeremiah 35:15 (all D and Jeremiah); אֱלֹהֵי הַגּוֺיִם Deuteronomy 29:17; זָרִים Jeremiah 5:19; כל צבא השׁמים Deuteronomy 4:19; 2 Kings 21:3; 2Chronicles 33:3; Jeremiah 8:2; הבעל(יםׅ Judges 2:11; Judges 3:7; Judges 10:6; Judges 10:10; 1 Samuel 12:10; 1 Kings 16:31; 1 Kings 22:54; 2 Kings 10:18 (twice in verse); 2 Kings 10:19 (twice in verse); 2 Kings 10:21,22,23 (twice in verse); 2 Kings 17:16; אלהי נֵכָר Joshua 24:20; Jeremiah 5:19; (הַ)גִּלּוּלִים 2 Kings 17:12; 2 Kings 21:21 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 20:39; האשׁרים2Chronicles 24:18; עצבים Psalm 106:36; פסיל(יםׅ2Chronicles 33:22; 2 Kings 17:41; פסל 2Ki 97:7; with לְ, לבעל Judges 2:13; לאלהים אחרים Jeremiah 44:3.

    5 serve ׳י with Levilical service (all P; compare RSSem i. 69): with accusative עבד עֲבֹדָה (see עֲבֹדָה) Numbers 3:7,8; Numbers 4:23,30,47; Numbers 7:5; Numbers 8:11,19,22,26; Numbers 16:9; Numbers 18:6,21,23; Joshua 22:27; accusative omitted Numbers 4:24,26,37,41; Numbers 8:15 (but ⅏ ᵐ5 עבדה), Numbers 8:25; Numbers 18:7.

    Niph`al Perfect3masculine singular נֶעְבָּ֑ד Ecclesiastes 5:8; 2masculine plural נֶעֱבַדְתֶּם Ezekiel 36:9; Imperfect3masculine singular יֵעָבֵד Deuteronomy 21:4; 3feminine singular תֵּעָבֵד Ezekiel 36:34; —

    1 be tilled, of land Deuteronomy 21:4; Ezekiel 36:9,34.

    2 Ecclesiastes 5:8 מֶלֶךְ לְשָׂדֶה נֶעְבָּ֑ד dubious: a king for (devoted to) the cultivated field (Hi); a king that maketh himself servant to the field (devoted to agriculture), Desee Commentaries, especially De.

    Pual Perfect3masculine singular עֻבַּד Deuteronomy 21:3; Isaiah 14:3; passive of

    Qal, with בְּ impersonal Deuteronomy 21:3 of a calf with which it has not been worked; hard service with which it was worked with captives Isaiah 14:3.

    Hiph`il Perfect3masculine singular הֶעֱבִיד Ezekiel 29:18; 2masculine singular suffix הֶעֱבַדְתַּ֫נִי Isaiah 43:24, הֶעֱבַדְתִּיךָ Isaiah 43:23, וְהַעֲבַדְתִּיךָ Jeremiah 17:4; Imperfect3masculine singular וַיַּעֲבֵד2Chronicles 34:33; 3 masculine plural יַעֲבִדוּ Exodus 1:13;

    Infinitive construct הַעֲבִיד2Chron 2:17; Participle plural מַעֲבִדִים Exodus 6:15; —

    1 compel to labour as slaves Exodus 1:13; Exodus 6:5 (P) 2 Chron 2:17, + Genesis 47:21 (reading הֶעֱבִיד לַעֲבָדִים), 2 Samuel 12:31 (reading וְהֶעֱבִיד + בְּ at; on both these see עבר

    Hiph`il near the end); cause to serve, of army’s service against, with accusative + (על)אל Ezekiel 29:18; cause to labour, weary, with בְּ of means Isaiah 43:23,24 (perhaps play on meanings 2, 3).

    2 make to serve as subjects, with 2 accusative Jeremiah 17:4, + Jeremiah 15:14 (read וְהַעֲבַרְתִּיךָ see עבר
    biblesuite.com/hebrew/5647.htm

    Genesis 2:5
    BIB: וְאָדָ֣ם אַ֔יִן לַֽעֲבֹ֖ד אֶת־ הָֽאֲדָמָֽה׃
    NAS: man to cultivate the ground.
    KJV: a man to till the ground.
    INT: man no to cultivate the ground
    Genesis 2:15
    BIB: בְגַן־ עֵ֔דֶן לְעָבְדָ֖הּ וּלְשָׁמְרָֽהּ׃
    NAS: of Eden to cultivate it and keep
    KJV: of Eden to dress it and to keep
    INT: the garden of Eden to cultivate and keep

    Genesis 3:23
    BIB: מִגַּן־ עֵ֑דֶן לַֽעֲבֹד֙ אֶת־ הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה
    NAS: of Eden, to cultivate the ground
    KJV: of Eden, to till the ground
    INT: the garden of Eden to cultivate the ground which

    Genesis 4:2
    BIB: וְקַ֕יִן הָיָ֖ה עֹבֵ֥ד אֲדָמָֽה׃
    NAS: but Cain was a tiller of the ground.
    KJV: but Cain was a tiller of the ground.
    INT: Cain become was a tiller of the ground

    Genesis 4:12
    BIB: כִּ֤י תַֽעֲבֹד֙ אֶת־ הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה
    NAS: When you cultivate the ground,
    KJV: When thou tillest the ground,
    INT: When cultivate the ground will no

    Genesis 14:4
    BIB: עֶשְׂרֵה֙ שָׁנָ֔ה עָבְד֖וּ אֶת־ כְּדָרְלָעֹ֑מֶר
    NAS: years they had served Chedorlaomer,
    KJV: years they served Chedorlaomer,
    INT: ten years had served Chedorlaomer three

    Genesis 15:13
    BIB: לֹ֣א לָהֶ֔ם וַעֲבָד֖וּם וְעִנּ֣וּ אֹתָ֑ם
    NAS: that is not theirs, where they will be enslaved and oppressed
    KJV: in a land [that is] not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict
    INT: A land not will be enslaved and oppressed

  14. In Psalm 2:11 עִבְד֣וּ (iv·du) is translated as δουλεύσατε (douleúsate) in the Greek Septuagint and as servite in the Latin Vulgate:
    servite Domino in timore et exultate in tremore
    δουλεύσατε τῷ κυρίῳ ἐν φόβῳ καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε αὐτῷ ἐν τρόμῳ
    (douleusate tō kuriō en phobō kai agalliasthe autō en tromō)
    Serve ye the Lord with fear: and rejoice unto him with trembling.
    עִבְד֣וּ (iv·du – to work or serve ) from abad (עָבַד aw-bad’ – to work, serve)
    which can also have the sense of “to cultivate” (as in the land).
    Genesis 2:5
    BIB: וְאָדָ֣ם אַ֔יִן לַֽעֲבֹ֖ד אֶת־ הָֽאֲדָמָֽה׃
    NAS: man to cultivate the ground.
    KJV: a man to till the ground.
    INT: man no to cultivate the ground
    Genesis 2:15
    BIB: בְגַן־ עֵ֔דֶן לְעָבְדָ֖הּ וּלְשָׁמְרָֽהּ׃
    NAS: of Eden to cultivate it and keep
    KJV: of Eden to dress it and to keep
    INT: the garden of Eden to cultivate and keep

    Genesis 3:23
    BIB: מִגַּן־ עֵ֑דֶן לַֽעֲבֹד֙ אֶת־ הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה
    NAS: of Eden, to cultivate the ground
    KJV: of Eden, to till the ground
    INT: the garden of Eden to cultivate the ground which

    Genesis 4:2
    BIB: וְקַ֕יִן הָיָ֖ה עֹבֵ֥ד אֲדָמָֽה׃
    NAS: but Cain was a tiller of the ground.
    KJV: but Cain was a tiller of the ground.
    INT: Cain become was a tiller of the ground

    Genesis 4:12
    BIB: כִּ֤י תַֽעֲבֹד֙ אֶת־ הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה
    NAS: When you cultivate the ground,
    KJV: When thou tillest the ground,
    INT: When cultivate the ground will no

    Fr. Haydock’s Commentary:
    Ver. 11. Trembling, with reverential awe and humility, (1 Corinthians ii. 3.; Amama) as none is sure of salvation. (Bell.[Bellarmine?]) — More are lost by presumption than by trembling. (Amama)

    haydock1859.tripod.com/id727.html

  15. St. Augustine on Psalm 2:
    Fathers of the Church > Expositions on the Psalms (Augustine) > Psalm 2
    Enarrationes in Psalmos
    www.newadvent.org/fathers/1801002.htm
    Exposition on Psalm 2

    1. “Why do the heathen rage, and the people meditate vain things?” Psalm 2:1. “The kings of the earth have stood up, and the rulers taken counsel together, against the Lord, and against His Christ” Psalm 2:2. It is said, “why?” as if it were said, in vain. For what they wished, namely, Christ’s destruction, they accomplished not; for this is spoken of our Lord’s persecutors, of whom also mention is made in the Acts of the Apostles. Acts 4:26

    2. “Let us break their bonds asunder, and cast away their yoke from us” Psalm 2:3. Although it admits of another acceptation, yet is it more fitly understood as in the person of those who are said to “meditate vain things.” So that “let us break their bonds asunder, and cast away their yoke from us,” may be, let us do our endeavour, that the Christian religion do not bind us, nor be imposed upon us.

    3. “He that dwells in the heavens shall laugh them to scorn, and the Lord shall have them in derision” Psalm 2:4. The sentence is repeated; for “He who dwells in the heavens,” is afterwards put, “the Lord;” and for “shall laugh them to scorn,” is afterwards put, “shall have them in derision.” Nothing of this however must be taken in a carnal sort, as if God either laughs with cheek, or derides with nostril; but it is to be understood of that power which He gives to His saints, that they seeing things to come, namely, that the Name and rule of Christ is to pervade posterity and possess all nations, should understand that those men “meditate a vain thing.” For this power whereby these things are foreknown is God’s “laughter” and “derision.” “He that dwells in the heavens shall laugh them to scorn.” If by “heavens” we understand holy souls, by these God, as foreknowing what is to come, will “laugh them to scorn, and have them in derision.”

    4. “Then He shall speak unto them in His wrath, and vex them in His sore displeasure” Psalm 2:5. For showing more clearly how He will “speak unto them,” he added, He will “vex them;” so that “in His wrath,” is, “in His sore displeasure.” But by the “wrath and sore displeasure” of the Lord God must not be understood any mental perturbation; but the might whereby He most justly avenges, by the subjection of all creation to His service. For that is to be observed and remembered which is written in the Wisdom of Solomon, “But You, Lord of power, judgest with tranquillity, and with great favour orders us.” Wisdom 12:18 The “wrath” of God then is an emotion which is produced in the soul which knows the law of God, when it sees this same law transgressed by the sinner. For by this emotion of righteous souls many things are avenged. Although the “wrath” of God can be well understood of that darkening of the mind, which overtakes those who transgress the law of God.

    5. “Yet am I set by Him as King upon Sion, His holy hill, preaching His decree” Psalm 2:6. This is clearly spoken in the Person of the very Lord our Saviour Christ. But if Sion signify, as some interpret, beholding, we must not understand it of anything rather than of the Church, where daily is the desire raised of beholding the bright glory of God, according to that of the Apostle, “but we with open face beholding the glory of the Lord.” 2 Corinthians 3:18 Therefore the meaning of this is, Yet I am set by Him as King over His holy Church; which for its eminence and stability He calls a mountain. “Yet I am set by Him as King.” I, that is, whose “bands” they were meditating “to break asunder,” and whose “yoke” to “cast away.” “Preaching His decree.” Who does not see the meaning of this, seeing it is daily practised?

    6. “The Lord has said unto me, You are My Son, today have I begotten You” Psalm 2:7. Although that day may also seem to be prophetically spoken of, on which Jesus Christ was born according to the flesh; and in eternity there is nothing past as if it had ceased to be, nor future as if it were not yet, but present only, since whatever is eternal, always is; yet as “today” intimates presentiality, a divine interpretation is given to that expression, “Today have I begotten You,” whereby the uncorrupt and Catholic faith proclaims the eternal generation of the power and Wisdom of God, who is the Only-begotten Son.

    7. “Ask of Me, and I shall give You the nations for Your inheritance” Psalm 2:8. This has at once a temporal sense with reference to the Manhood which He took on Himself, who offered up Himself as a Sacrifice in the stead of all sacrifices, who also makes intercession for us; so that the words, “ask of Me,” may be referred to all this temporal dispensation, which has been instituted for mankind, namely, that the “nations” should be joined to the Name of Christ, and so be redeemed from death, and possessed by God. “I shall give You the nations for Your inheritance,” which so possess them for their salvation, and to bear unto You spiritual fruit. “And the uttermost parts of the earth for Your possession.” The same repeated, “The uttermost parts of the earth,” is put for “the nations;” but more clearly, that we might understand all the nations. And “Your possession” stands for “Your inheritance.”

    8. “You shall rule them with a rod of iron,” with inflexible justice, and “You shall break them like a potter’s vessel” Psalm 2:9; that is, “You shall break” in them earthly lusts, and the filthy doings of the old man, and whatsoever has been derived and inured from the sinful clay. “And now understand, you kings” Psalm 2:10. “And now;” that is, being now renewed, your covering of clay worn out, that is, the carnal vessels of error which belong to your past life, “now understand,” you who now are “kings;” that is, able now to govern all that is servile and brutish in you, able now too to fight, not as “they who beat the air, but chastening your bodies, and bringing them into subjection.” 1 Corinthians 9:26-27 “Be instructed, all you who judge the earth.” This again is a repetition; “Be instructed” is instead of “understand;” and “you who judge the earth” instead of “you kings.” For He signifies the spiritual by “those who judge the earth.” For whatsoever we judge, is below us; and whatsoever is below the spiritual man, is with good reason called “the earth;” because it is defiled with earthly corruption.

    9. “Serve the Lord with fear;” lest what is said, “You kings and judges of the earth,” turn into pride: “And rejoice with trembling” Psalm 2:11. Very excellently is “rejoice” added, lest “serve the Lord with fear” should seem to tend to misery. But again, lest this same rejoicing should run on to unrestrained inconsiderateness, there is added “with trembling,” that it might avail for a warning, and for the careful guarding of holiness. It can also be taken thus, “And now you kings understand;” that is, And now that I am set as King, be not sad, kings of the earth, as if your excellency were taken from you, but rather “understand and be instructed.” For it is expedient for you, that you should be under Him, by whom understanding and instruction are given you. And this is expedient for you, that you lord it not with rashness, but that you “serve the Lord” of all “with fear,” and “rejoice” in bliss most sure and most pure, with all caution and carefulness, lest you fall therefrom into pride.

    10. “Lay hold of discipline, lest at any time the Lord be angry, and you perish from the righteous way” Psalm 2:12. This is the same as, “understand,” and, “be instructed.” For to understand and be instructed, this is to lay hold of discipline. Still in that it is said, “lay hold of,” it is plainly enough intimated that there is some protection and defence against all things which might do hurt unless with so great carefulness it be laid hold of. “Lest at any time the Lord be angry,” is expressed with a doubt, not as regards the vision of the prophet to whom it is certain, but as regards those who are warned; for they, to whom it is not openly revealed, are wont to think with doubt of the anger of God. This then they ought to say to themselves, let us “lay hold of discipline, lest at any time the Lord be angry, and we perish from the righteous way.” Now, how “the Lord be angry” is to be taken, has been said above. And “you perish from the righteous way.” This is a great punishment, and dreaded by those who have had any perception of the sweetness of righteousness; for he who perishes from the way of righteousness, in much misery will wander through the ways of unrighteousness.

    11. “When His anger shall be shortly kindled, blessed are all they who put their trust in Him;” that is, when the vengeance shall come which is prepared for the ungodly and for sinners, not only will it not light on those “who put their trust in” the Lord, but it will even avail for the foundation and exaltation of a kingdom for them. For he said not, “When His anger shall be shortly kindled,” safe “are all they who put their trust in Him,” as though they should have this only thereby, to be exempt from punishment; but he said, “blessed;” in which there is the sum and accumulation of all good things. Now the meaning of “shortly” I suppose to be this, that it will be something sudden, while sinners will deem it far off and long to come.

  16. Amen. Haydock’s exegesis is so full:

    Ver. 9. Rule, as a shepherd, (poimaneis) as it is cited [in] Apocalypse ii. 26. But he is speaking of vengeance taken on the rebellious; and we might translate, “Thou shalt break,” &c. (Calmet) — Yet this is not necessary, as a shepherd sometimes beats with severity, to prevent his sheep from straying [the flail and the shepherd’s crook – one a harsher and the other a softer guidance] . (Haydock) — The Church guides also use coercion, but for the good of the flock. (Calmet) — God brought the murderers of his Son to an evil end, and destroyed their city. (Haydock) — He broke the Gentiles, to make them a more noble vessel, Jeremias xviii. 4. (St. Hilary) — He will execute judgment at the last day, Apocalypse xix. 11. (Calmet) — When the clay is still soft, the vessel may easily be repaired; so the sinner may be reclaimed, when he has only just fallen. (St. Jerome) — Even the most obdurate, are as clay in God’s hands. (Worthington)

    Ver. 10…Kings are here instructed to support the Church, for which some have been styled, “Most Christian,” “Catholic,” or “Defenders of the Faith.” The Donatists falsely asserted, that they were ever found enemies to religion, because of Constantine, &c., attempted to repress their errors. But Julian favoured them, to increase dissensions. [dissent; OED from ‘protest’ – disagree with the doctrine of an established or orthodox Church]

    also from Haydock: Not a single text can be produced in favour of the contrary system leading to indifference about religion; which, if true, would shew the preaching of the prophets and apostles as nugatory, and their blood shed in vain.

    and from the newadvent above: that the Name and rule of Christ is to pervade posterity and possess all nations.

    Surely perpetuating the loss of the Christ’s ‘possession of all nations’ – discouraging the ‘cultivation’ of the True Faith, then is contrary to Faith.?

    As an aside, since the newadvent mention the ‘Book of Wisdom’ above:

    The Book of Wisdom provides a beautiful scriptural account of the truth of purgatory. In the following passage, notice how the sacred author incorporates the various facets of purgatory revealed in the New Testament: departed souls are tested, punished and disciplined for a time, like gold in the furnace is tried by fire, but these souls are at peace because they will receive immortality. Notice also how these souls run like “sparks through the stubble” which is a clear precedent for Paul’s metaphor of “fire” burning “stubble”…This is the main reason why Martin Luther removed the Book of Wisdom from the canon of Scripture, even though it had been a part of the Christian Bible for the previous 1500 years.

    Salza, John (2009-01-01). The Biblical Basis for Purgatory (Kindle Locations 2663-2664). Saint Benedict Press.

    With regards to working out our salvation in ‘fear and trembling’, Salza’s other book is a good read. He comments that:

    the DR provides the best translation of the scriptures concerning the study of predestination, with all the relevant subtleties and nuances that bear upon the verses’true meaning; (9) I want those unfamiliar with the DR to discover this most faithful and accurate translation of the original languages and experience the true joy of reading such a translation (and to discourage them from using the many modern, liberal translations that distort and fabricate God’s Word).

    Salza, John (2010-09-01). The Mystery of Predestination: According to Scripture, the Church and St. Thomas Aquinas

  17. Good point. Thanks.
    Fr. Haydock mentions Psalm 2:9 and cites Apocalypse ii. 26 for a comparison
    of ποιμανεῖς (poimaneis). Apparently, Apocalypse 2:27 in the current numbering of verses.
    It is worth taking a look at the Greek in these verses and comparing the Latin of the Vulgate:
    Psalm 2:9
    ποιμανεῖς αὐτοὺς ἐν ῥάβδῳ σιδηρᾷ ὡς σκεῦος κεραμέως συντρίψεις αὐτούς
    (poimaneis autous en rabdō sidēra hōs skeuos kerameōs suntripseis autous)
    Latin-Vulgate: pasces eos in virga ferrea ut vas figuli conteres eos
    Thou shalt rule them with a rod of iron, and shalt break them in pieces like a potter’s vessel.
    Apocalypse 2:27
    Greek: καὶ ποιμανεῖ αὐτοὺς ἐν ῥάβδῳ σιδηρᾷ ὡς τὰ σκεύη τὰ κεραμικὰ συντρίβεται
    Latin: et reget illas in virga ferrea tamquam vas figuli confringentur
    Douay-Rheims: And he shall rule them with a rod of iron, and as the vessel of a potter they shall be broken,
    In Psalm 2:9 ποιμανεῖς is translated as pasces whereas in Apocalypse 2:27 ποιμανεῖ (poimanei) is translated into Latin as reget.
    The Latin verb “reget” is the third-person singular future active indicative of regō 1.”he (she, it) will rule, he (she, it) will govern”
    2.”he (she, it) will guide, he (she, it) will steer”
    regō, regere, rēxī, rēctum:
    1.I rule, govern
    2.I guide, steer
    en.wiktionary.org/wiki/rego#Latin

    The Latin verb pāscēs is the second-person singular future active indicative of pāscō.
    pāscō, pāscere, pāvī, pāstum.
    1.I feed, nourish, maintain, support.
    2.I pasture, drive to pasture, attend.
    Etymology
    From Proto-Indo-European *peh₂- (“to protect”). Cognates include Ancient Greek ποιμήν (poimḗn, “shepherd”), Sanskrit पाति (pā́ti, “to protect”), Old English fōda and fēdan (English food and feed).
    Pronunciation
    (Classical) IPA: /ˈpaːs.koː/
    en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pasco#Latin
    3.I feed, supply, cultivate, let grow
    4.(of animals) I graze, browse
    5.(figuratively) I feast, delight, satisfy, feed, gratify
    6.I consume, lay waste, ravage, desolate

    Lexicon for the Greek:
    biblelexicon.org/revelation/2-27.htm

    Revelation 2:27 V-FIA-3S
    BIB: καὶ ποιμανεῖ αὐτοὺς ἐν
    NAS: AND HE SHALL RULE THEM WITH A ROD
    KJV: And he shall rule them with
    INT: and he will shepherd them with

    Strong’s Concordance:
    biblesuite.com/greek/4165.htm

    poimainó: to act as a shepherd
    Original Word: ποιμαίνω
    Part of Speech: Verb
    Transliteration: poimainó
    Phonetic Spelling: (poy-mah’-ee-no)
    Short Definition: I shepherd, tend
    Definition: I shepherd, tend, herd; hence: I rule, govern.

    Cognate: 4165 poimaínō – properly, to shepherd, caring for (protecting) the flock.

    4165 /poimaínō (“shepherding, pastoring”) is distinct from “feeding” (1006 /bóskō). 4165 (poimaínō) focuses on “tending” (“shepherding”) (WS, 274), which includes guarding, guiding, and folding the flock and is only provided (ultimately) by Jesus Christ – the Shepherd, who calls under-shepherds (such as elder-overseers) to guard and guide His people by His direction (1 Pet 5:1-5). See 4166 (poimēn).

    [4165 /poimaínō (“to shepherd, tend”) occurs 11 times in the NT, usually with a figurative sense of “shepherding (tending) God’s flock.” This provides Spirit-directed guidance (care) conjunction with feeding His people (teaching them Scripture).]

    Word Origin
    from poimén
    Definition
    to act as a shepherd
    NASB Translation
    caring (1), rule (3), shepherd (5), tending sheep (1), tends (1).

    Thayer’s Greek Lexicon:
    STRONGS NT 4165: ποιμαίνω

    ποιμαίνω; future ποιμανῶ; 1 aorist imperative 2 person plural ποιμάνατε (1 Peter 5:2); (ποιμήν, which see); from Homer down; the Sept. for רָעָה; to feed, to tend a flock, keep sheep;

    a. properly: Luke 17:7; ποίμνην, 1 Corinthians 9:7.

    b. tropically, α. to rule, govern: of rulers, τινα, Matthew 2:6; Revelation 2:27; Revelation 12:5; Revelation 19:15 (2 Samuel 5:2; Micah 5:6 (); , etc.; (cf. Winers Grammar, 17)) (see ποιμήν, b. at the end); of the overseers (pastors) of the church, John 21:16; Acts 20:28; 1 Peter 5:2. β. to furnish pasturage or food; to nourish: ἑαυτόν, to cherish one’s body, to serve the body, Jude 1:12; to supply the requisites for the soul’s needs (R. V. shall be their shepherd), Revelation 7:17. (Synonym: see βόσκω, at the end.)

    to shepherd, rule

    From poimen; to tend as a shepherd of (figuratively, superviser) — feed (cattle), rule.

    see GREEK poimen

    Strong’s Greek 4165
    11 Occurrences

    Ποίμαινε — 1 Occ.
    ποιμαίνει — 1 Occ.
    ποιμαίνειν — 2 Occ.
    ποιμαίνοντα — 1 Occ.
    ποιμαίνοντες — 1 Occ.
    ποιμάνατε — 1 Occ.
    ποιμανεῖ — 4 Occ.

    Matthew 2:6 V-FIA-3S
    BIB: ἡγούμενος ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν
    NAS: WHO WILL SHEPHERD MY PEOPLE
    KJV: a Governor, that shall rule my people
    INT: a leader who will shepherd the people
    Luke 17:7 V-PPA-AMS
    BIB: ἀροτριῶντα ἢ ποιμαίνοντα ὃς εἰσελθόντι
    NAS: or tending sheep, will say
    KJV: or feeding cattle, will say
    INT: plowing or shepherding the [one] having come in

    John 21:16 V-PMA-2S
    BIB: λέγει αὐτῷ Ποίμαινε τὰ πρόβατά
    NAS: You. He said to him, Shepherd My sheep.
    KJV: He saith unto him, Feed my sheep.
    INT: He says to him Shepherd the sheep

    Acts 20:28 V-PNA
    BIB: ἔθετο ἐπισκόπους ποιμαίνειν τὴν ἐκκλησίαν
    NAS: you overseers, to shepherd the church
    KJV: overseers, to feed the church
    INT: did set overseers to shepherd the church

    1 Corinthians 9:7 V-PIA-3S
    BIB: ἢ τίς ποιμαίνει ποίμνην καὶ
    NAS: who tends a flock
    KJV: or who feedeth a flock, and
    INT: or who shepherds a flock and

    1 Peter 5:2 V-AMA-2P
    BIB: ποιμάνατε τὸ ἐν
    NAS: shepherd the flock of God
    KJV: Feed the flock of God
    INT: shepherd the among

    Jude 1:12 V-PPA-NMP
    BIB: ἀφόβως ἑαυτοὺς ποιμαίνοντες νεφέλαι ἄνυδροι
    NAS: with you without fear, caring for themselves;
    KJV: with you, feeding themselves
    INT: fearlessly themselves shepherding clouds without water

    Revelation 2:27 V-FIA-3S
    BIB: καὶ ποιμανεῖ αὐτοὺς ἐν
    NAS: AND HE SHALL RULE THEM WITH A ROD
    KJV: And he shall rule them with
    INT: and he will shepherd them with

    Revelation 7:17 V-FIA-3S
    BIB: τοῦ θρόνου ποιμανεῖ αὐτούς καὶ
    NAS: of the throne will be their shepherd, and will guide
    KJV: of the throne shall feed them,
    INT: of the throne will shepherd them and

    Revelation 12:5 V-PNA
    BIB: ὃς μέλλει ποιμαίνειν πάντα τὰ
    NAS: [child], who is to rule all
    KJV: who was to rule all nations
    INT: who is about to shepherd all the

    Revelation 19:15 V-FIA-3S
    BIB: καὶ αὐτὸς ποιμανεῖ αὐτοὺς ἐν
    NAS: the nations, and He will rule them with a rod
    KJV: and he shall rule them with
    INT: and he will shepherd them with

    11 Occurrences

    biblesuite.com/greek/4165.htm

  18. Psalm 2:6
    Greek Septuagint: 6 ἐγὼ δὲ κατεστάθην βασιλεὺς ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ σιων ὄρος τὸ ἅγιον αὐτοῦ
    (egō de katestathēn basileus up’ autou epi siōn oros to agion autou)
    Latin Vulgate: ego autem orditus sum regem meum super Sion montem sanctum suum adnuntiabo Dei praeceptum
    But I am appointed king by him over Sion his holy mountain, preaching his commandment.

    There is a slight variation in the verses between the Septuagint and Vulgate for
    Psalm 2:6. The Latin “adnuntiabo” is the translation of the Greek διαγγέλλων (diaggellon) attributed to Psalm 2:7 in the Septuagint.
    διαγγέλλων τὸ πρόσταγμα κυρίου in verse 7 of the Septuagint is translated in the Latin Vulgate as “adnuntiabo Dei praeceptum” but filed as verse 6 of Psalm 2.
    The Hebrew word is אֲסַפְּרָ֗ה (a·sap·pe·rah ), a denominative verb from sepher.
    biblesuite.com/hebrew/5608.htm

    Strong’s Concordance:
    saphar: to count, recount, relate
    Original Word: סָפַר
    Part of Speech: verb; noun masculine
    Transliteration: saphar
    Phonetic Spelling: (saw-far’)
    Short Definition: tell
    ’ă·sap·pə·rāh — 5 Occurrences
    Psalm 2:7
    BIB: אֲסַפְּרָ֗ה אֶֽ֫ל חֹ֥ק
    NAS: I will surely tell of the decree
    KJV: I will declare the decree: the LORD
    INT: tell of the decree

    Latin:
    adnūntiābō
    1.first-person singular future active indicative of adnūntiō
    adnūntiō, adnūntiāre, adnūntiāvī, adnūntiātum
    present active adnūntiō, present infinitive adnūntiāre, perfect active adnūntiāvī, supine adnūntiātum.
    1.I announce, make known, report, proclaim, relate.
    Alternative forms
    annūntiō
    Etymology
    From ad + nūntiō (“announce”).
    Pronunciation
    (Classical) IPA: /adˈnuːn.ti.oː/
    Inflection
    First Conjugation
    Synonyms
    (announce): nūntiō

    Derived terms
    adnūntiātiō / annūntiātiō
    adnūntiātor / annūntiātor
    adnūntius / annūntius

    References
    adnuntio in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879
    en.wiktionary.org/wiki/adnuntio#Latin

    Strong’s Concordance:
    diaggelló: to publish abroad, proclaim
    Original Word: διαγγέλλω
    Part of Speech: Verb
    Transliteration: diaggelló
    Phonetic Spelling: (de-ang-gel’-lo)
    Short Definition: I announce throughout, spread the news of
    Definition: I announce throughout (the world), spread the news of, give notice of, teach.

    1229 diaggéllō (from 1223 /diá, “all the way through, thoroughly,” which intensifies aggellō, “declare”) – properly, thoroughly declare (publically herald); fully announce, “declaring far and wide,” i.e. widely (profusely) proclaiming.
    Word Origin
    from dia and aggelló
    Definition
    to publish abroad, proclaim
    NASB Translation
    giving notice (1), proclaim everywhere (1), proclaimed (1).

    Thayer’s Greek Lexicon:
    STRONGS NT 1229: διαγγέλλω

    διαγγέλλω; 2 aorist passive διηγγελην; from Pindar down; to carry a message through, announce everywhere, through places, through assemblies of men, etc.; to publish abroad, declare, (see διά, C. 8): τί, Luke 9:60; Acts 21:26 (διαγγέλλων, namely, to all who were in the temple and were knowing to the affair); with the addition ἐν πάσῃ τῇ γῆ, Romans 9:17 from Exodus 9:16. (Leviticus 25:9; Joshua 6:10; Psalm 2:7; (Psalm 58:13 ()); Sir. 43:2; 2 Macc. 3:34.)

    Strong’s Greek 1229
    3 Occurrences

    διαγγελῇ — 1 Occ.
    διάγγελλε — 1 Occ.
    διαγγέλλων — 1 Occ.

    Luke 9:60 V-PMA-2S
    BIB: δὲ ἀπελθὼν διάγγελλε τὴν βασιλείαν
    NAS: but as for you, go and proclaim everywhere the kingdom
    KJV: go thou and preach the kingdom of God.
    INT: however having gone forth declare the kingdom
    Acts 21:26 V-PPA-NMS
    BIB: τὸ ἱερόν διαγγέλλων τὴν ἐκπλήρωσιν
    NAS: into the temple giving notice of the completion
    KJV: the temple, to signify the accomplishment
    INT: the temple declaring the fulfillment

    Romans 9:17 V-ASP-3S
    BIB: καὶ ὅπως διαγγελῇ τὸ ὄνομά
    NAS: IN YOU, AND THAT MY NAME MIGHT BE PROCLAIMED THROUGHOUT
    KJV: name might be declared throughout
    INT: and so that should be declared the name

    3 Occurrences

    biblesuite.com/greek/1229.htm

    Latin Vulgate:
    praeceptum (genitive praeceptī); n, second declension
    1.teaching, lesson
    2.precept
    3.order, command

    Greek:
    πρόσταγμα (n.)
    commandment
    πρόσταγµα, ατος, τό, order, command, commandment
    analogical dictionary
    factotum
    Ordering

    language utterance, linguistic utterance, speech act – command, enjoin, order, say, speak, tell[Hyper.]

    dictate, order, prescribe – command, require – adjure, beseech, bid, conjure, entreat, press – dictate, rule the roost – bid, bidding, command, dictation, order – commandment – requisition[Dérivé]

    bid, bidding, command, dictation, order[Hyper.]

    command, require[Dérivé]

  19. null

    Psalm 3 Latin: Biblia Sacra Vulgata

    1 canticum David cum fugeret a facie Abessalon filii sui Domine quare multiplicati sunt hostes mei multi consurgunt adversus me

    2 multi dicunt animae meae non est salus huic in Deo semper

    3 tu autem Domine clipeus circa me gloria mea et exaltans caput meum

    4 voce mea ad Dominum clamabo et exaudiet me de monte sancto suo semper

    5 ego dormivi et soporatus sum evigilavi quia Dominus sustentavit me

    6 non timebo milia populi quae circumdederunt me surge Domine salvum me fac Deus meus

    7 quia percussisti omnium inimicorum meorum maxillam dentes impiorum confregisti

    8 Domini est salus super populum tuum benedictio tua semper

    Douay-Rheims Bible
    1 The psalm of David when he fled from the face of his son Absalom. Why, O Lord, are they multiplied that afflict me? many are they who rise up against me.
    2 Many say to my soul: There is no salvation for him in his God.

    3 But thou, O Lord art my protector, my glory, and the lifter up of my head.

    4 I have cried to the Lord with my voice: and he hath heard me from his holy hill.

    5 I have slept and taken my rest: and I have risen up, because the Lord hath protected me.

    6 I will not fear thousands of the people, surrounding me: arise, O Lord; save me, O my God.

    7 For thou hast struck all them who are my adversaries without cause: thou hast broken the teeth of sinners.

    8 Salvation is of the Lord: and thy blessing is upon thy people.

    Psalm 3 Greek OT: Septuagint with Diacritics
    1 ψαλμὸς τῷ δαυιδ ὁπότε ἀπεδίδρασκεν ἀπὸ προσώπου αβεσσαλωμ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ κύριε τί ἐπληθύνθησαν οἱ θλίβοντές με πολλοὶ ἐπανίστανται ἐπ’ ἐμέ

    2 πολλοὶ λέγουσιν τῇ ψυχῇ μου οὐκ ἔστιν σωτηρία αὐτῷ ἐν τῷ θεῷ αὐτοῦ διάψαλμα

    3 σὺ δέ κύριε ἀντιλήμπτωρ μου εἶ δόξα μου καὶ ὑψῶν τὴν κεφαλήν μου

    4 φωνῇ μου πρὸς κύριον ἐκέκραξα καὶ ἐπήκουσέν μου ἐξ ὄρους ἁγίου αὐτοῦ διάψαλμα

    5 ἐγὼ ἐκοιμήθην καὶ ὕπνωσα ἐξηγέρθην ὅτι κύριος ἀντιλήμψεταί μου

    6 οὐ φοβηθήσομαι ἀπὸ μυριάδων λαοῦ τῶν κύκλῳ συνεπιτιθεμένων μοι

    7 ἀνάστα κύριε σῶσόν με ὁ θεός μου ὅτι σὺ ἐπάταξας πάντας τοὺς ἐχθραίνοντάς μοι ματαίως ὀδόντας ἁμαρτωλῶν συνέτριψας

    8 τοῦ κυρίου ἡ σωτηρία καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν λαόν σου ἡ εὐλογία σου

    The Latin “exaltans caput meum” compared with the Greek of the Septuagint: ὑψῶν τὴν κεφαλήν μου (hupsōn tēn kephalēn mou).
    Strange word: ὑψῶν (hypsōn) from the verb ὑψόω (hypsóō): to lift or raise up, to exalt, uplift
    5312 hypsóō (from 5311 /hýpsos, “height”) – properly, raise high (elevate), exalt.
    Original Word: ὑψόω
    Part of Speech: Verb
    Transliteration: hupsoó
    Phonetic Spelling: (hoop-so’-o)
    Short Definition: I lift up, exalt
    Definition: (a) I raise on high, lift up, (b) I exalt, set on high.
    The Hebrew of Psalm 3:3 is וּמֵרִ֥ים ( u·me·rim): “to be high or exalted, rise one who lifts.”

    ὑψῶν (hypsōn) — 2 Occurrences
    Luke 14:11 V-PPA-NMS
    BIB: πᾶς ὁ ὑψῶν ἑαυτὸν ταπεινωθήσεται
    NAS: For everyone who exalts himself
    KJV: whosoever exalteth himself
    INT: everyone that exalts himself will be humbled

    Luke 18:14 V-PPA-NMS
    BIB: πᾶς ὁ ὑψῶν ἑαυτὸν ταπεινωθήσεται
    NAS: for everyone who exalts himself
    KJV: every one that exalteth himself
    INT: everyone who exalts himself will be humbled

    Hebrew:
    rum: to be high or exalted, rise
    Original Word: רוּם
    Part of Speech: Verb
    Transliteration: rum
    Phonetic Spelling: (room)
    Short Definition: exalted

    Word Origin
    a prim. root
    Definition
    to be high or exalted, rise
    NASB Translation
    aloud (1), became proud (1), become proud (1), boldly* (2), brought (1), contributed (5), defiantly* (1), display (1), exalt (11), exaltation (1), exalted (29), exalts (5), extol (5), extolled (1), haughty (5), heights (1), held (1), high (10), higher (2), levy (1), lift (19), lifted (11), lifting (1), lifts (4), lofty (6), loud (1), made it high (1), make (1), makes his on high (1), offer (5), offered (5), present (3), raise (6), raised (6), reared (1), rebelled* (2), remove (3), removed (2), rise (2), rose (1), set (2), set apart (3), stop (1), sworn* (1), take (5), take off (1), tall (4), taller (1), took (2), triumphant (1), turn (1), uplifted (1), went (1).

  20. www.newadvent.org/fathers/1801003.htm
    St. Augustine
    Fathers of the Church > Expositions on the Psalms (Augustine) > Psalm 3
    Exposition on Psalm 3

    A psalm of David, when he fled from the face of Abessalon his son.

    1. The words, “I slept, and took rest; and rose, for the Lord will take me up,” lead us to believe that this Psalm is to be understood as in the Person of Christ; for they sound more applicable to the Passion and Resurrection of our Lord, than to that history in which David’s flight is described from the face of his rebellious son. And, since it is written of Christ’s disciples, “The sons of the bridegroom fast not as long as the bridegroom is with them;” Matthew 9:15 it is no wonder if by his undutiful son be here meant that undutiful disciple who betrayed Him. From whose face although it may be understood historically that He fled, when on his departure He withdrew with the rest to the mountain; yet in a spiritual sense, when the Son of God, that is the Power and Wisdom of God, abandoned the mind of Judas; when the Devil wholly occupied him; as it is written, “The Devil entered into his heart,” John 13:27 may it be well understood that Christ fled from his face; not that Christ gave place to the Devil, but that on Christ’s departure the Devil took possession. Which departure, I suppose, is called a flight in this Psalm, because of its quickness; which is indicated also by the word of our Lord, saying, “That you do, do quickly.” John 13:27 So even in common conversation we say of anything that does not come to mind, it has fled from me; and of a man of much learning we say, nothing flies from him. Wherefore truth fled from the mind of Judas, when it ceased to enlighten him. But Absalom, as some interpret, in the Latin tongue signifies, Patris pax, a father’s peace. And it may seem strange, whether in the history of the kings, when Absalom carried on war against his father; or in the history of the New Testament, when Judas was the betrayer of our Lord; how “father’s peace” can be understood. But both in the former place they who read carefully, see that David in that war was at peace with his son, who even with sore grief lamented his death, saying, “O Absalom, my son, would God I had died for you!” 2 Samuel 18:33 And in the history of the New Testament by that so great and so wonderful forbearance of our Lord; in that He bore so long with him as if good, when He was not ignorant of his thoughts; in that He admitted him to the Supper in which He committed and delivered to His disciples the figure of His Body and Blood; finally, in that He received the kiss of peace at the very time of His betrayal; it is easily understood how Christ showed peace to His betrayer, although he was laid waste by the intestine war of so abominable a device. And therefore is Absalom called “father’s peace,” because his father had the peace, which he had not.

    2. “O Lord, how are they multiplied that trouble me!” Psalm 3:1. So multiplied indeed were they, that one even from the number of His disciples was not wanting, who was added to the number of His persecutors. “Many rise up against me; many say unto my soul, There is no salvation for him in his God” Psalm 3:2. It is clear that if they had had any idea that He would rise again, assuredly they would not have slain Him. To this end are those speeches, “Let Him come down from the cross, if He be the Son of God;” and again, “He saved others, Himself He cannot save.” Matthew 27:42 Therefore, neither would Judas have betrayed Him, if he had not been of the number of those who despised Christ, saying, “There is no salvation for Him in His God.”

    3. “But You, O Lord, art my taker.” It is said to God in the nature of man, for the taking of man is, the Word made Flesh. “My glory.” Even He calls God his glory, whom the Word of God so took, that God became one with Him. Let the proud learn, who unwillingly hear, when it is said to them, “For what have you that you did not receive? Now if you received it, why do you glory as if you had not received it?” 1 Corinthians 4:7 “And the lifter up of my head” Psalm 3:3. I think that this should be here taken of the human mind, which is not unreasonably called the head of the soul; which so inhered in, and in a sort coalesced with, the supereminent excellency of the Word taking man, that it was not laid aside by so great humiliation of the Passion.

    4. “With my voice have I cried unto the Lord” Psalm 3:4; that is, not with the voice of the body, which is drawn out with the sound of the reverberation of the air; but with the voice of the heart, which to men speaks not, but with God sounds as a cry. By this voice Susanna was heard; and with this voice the Lord Himself commanded that prayer should be made in closets, Matthew 6:6 that is, in the recesses of the heart noiselessly. Nor would one easily say that prayer is not made with this voice, if no sound of words is uttered from the body; since even when in silence we pray within the heart, if thoughts interpose alien from the mind of one praying, it cannot yet be said, “With my voice have I cried unto the Lord.” Nor is this rightly said, save when the soul alone, taking to itself nothing of the flesh, and nothing of the aims of the flesh, in prayer, speaks to God, where He only hears. But even this is called a cry by reason of the strength of its intention. “And He heard me out of His holy mountain.” We have the Lord Himself called a mountain by the Prophet, as it is written, “The stone that was cut out without hands grew to the size of a mountain.” Daniel 2:34-35 But this cannot be taken of His Person, unless perhaps He would speak thus, out of myself, as of His holy mountain He heard me, when He dwelt in me, that is, in this very mountain. But it is more plain and unembarrassed, if we understand that God out of His justice heard. For it was just that He should raise again from the dead the Innocent who was slain, and to whom evil had been recompensed for good, and that He should render to the persecutor a meet reward, who repaid Him evil for good. For we read, “Your justice is as the mountains of God.”

    5. “I slept, and took rest” Psalm 3:5. It may be not unsuitably remarked, that it is expressly said, “I,” to signify that of His own Will He underwent death, according to that, “Therefore does My Father love Me, because I lay down My life, that I might take it again. No man takes it from Me; I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again.” John 10:17-18 Therefore, says He, you have not taken Me as though against My will, and slain Me; but “I slept, and took rest; and rose, for the Lord will take me up.” Scripture contains numberless instances of sleep being put for death; as the Apostle says, “I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep.” 1 Thessalonians 4:13 Nor need we make any question why it is added, “took rest,” seeing that it has already been said, “I slept.” Repetitions of this kind are usual in Scripture, as we have pointed out many in the second Psalm. But some copies have, “I slept, and was cast into a deep sleep.” And different copies express it differently, according to the possible renderings of the Greek words, ἐ γὼ δsleeping may be taken of one dying, but sleep of one dead: so that sleeping may be the transition into sleep, as awakening is the transition into wakefulness. Let us not deem these repetitions in the sacred writings empty ornaments of speech. “I slept, and took rest,” is therefore well understood as “I gave Myself up to My Passion, and death ensued.” “And I rose, for the Lord will take Me up.” This is the more to be remarked, how that in one sentence the Psalmist has used a verb of past and future time. For he has said, both “I rose,” which is the past, and “will take Me up,” which is the future; seeing that assuredly the rising again could not be without that taking up. But in prophecy the future is well joined to the past, whereby both are signified. Since things which are prophesied of as yet to come in reference to time are future; but in reference to the knowledge of those who prophesy they are already to be viewed as done. Verbs of the present tense are also mixed in, which shall be treated of in their proper place when they occur.

    6. “I will not fear the thousands of people that surround me” Psalm 3:6. It is written in the Gospels how great a multitude stood around Him as He was suffering, and on the cross. “Arise, O Lord, save me, O my God” Psalm 3:7. It is not said to God, “Arise,” as if asleep or lying down, but it is usual in holy Scripture to attribute to God what He does in us; not indeed universally, but where it can be done suitably; as when He is said to speak, when by His gift Prophets speak, and Apostles, or whatsoever messengers of the truth. Hence that text, “Would you have proof of Christ, who speaks in me?” 2 Corinthians 13:3 For he does not say, of Christ, by whose enlightening or order I speak; but he attributes at once the speaking itself to Him, by whose gift he spoke.

    7. “Since You have smitten all who oppose me without a cause.” It is not to be pointed as if it were one sentence, “Arise, O Lord, save me, O my God; since You have smitten all who oppose me without a cause.” For He did not therefore save Him, because He smote His enemies; but rather He being saved, He smote them. Therefore it belongs to what follows, so that the sense is this; “Since You have smitten all who oppose me without a cause, You have broken the teeth of the sinners;” that is, thereby have You broken the teeth of the sinners, since You have smitten all who oppose me. It is forsooth the punishment of the opposers, whereby their teeth have been broken, that is, the words of sinners rending with their cursing the Son of God, brought to nought, as it were to dust; so that we may understand “teeth” thus, as words of cursing. Of which teeth the Apostle speaks, “If you bite one another, take heed that you be not consumed one of another.” Galatians 5:15 The teeth of sinners can also be taken as the chiefs of sinners; by whose authority each one is cut off from the fellowship of godly livers, and as it were incorporated with evil livers. To these teeth are opposed the Church’s teeth, by whose authority believers are cut off from the error of the Gentiles and various opinions, and are translated into that fellowship which is the body of Christ. With these teeth Peter was told to eat the animals when they had been killed, that is, by killing in the Gentiles what they were, and changing them into what he was himself. Of these teeth too of the Church it is said, “Your teeth are as a flock of shorn sheep, coming up from the bath, whereof every one bears twins, and there is not one barren among them.” These are they who prescribe rightly, and as they prescribe, live; who do what is written, “Let your works shine before men, that they may bless your Father which is in heaven.” Matthew 5:16 For moved by their authority, they believe God who speaks and works through these men; and separated from the world, to which they were once conformed, they pass over into the members of the Church. And rightly therefore are they, through whom such things are done, called teeth like to shorn sheep; for they have laid aside the burdens of earthly cares, and coming up from the bath, from the washing away of the filth of the world by the Sacrament of Baptism, every one bears twins. For they fulfil the two commandments, of which it is said, “On these two commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets;” Matthew 22:40 loving God with all their heart, and with all their soul, and with all their mind, and their neighbour as themselves. “There is not one barren among them,” for much fruit they render unto God. According to this sense then it is to be thus understood, “You have broken the teeth of the sinners,” that is, You have brought the chiefs of the sinners to nought, by smiting all who oppose Me without a cause. For the chiefs according to the Gospel history persecuted Him, while the lower people honoured Him.

    8. “Salvation is of the Lord; and upon Your people be Your blessing” Psalm 3:8. In one sentence the Psalmist has enjoined men what to believe, and has prayed for believers. For when it is said, “Salvation is of the Lord,” the words are addressed to men. Nor does it follow, “And upon Your people” be “Your blessing,” in such wise as that the whole is spoken to men, but there is a change into prayer addressed to God Himself, for the very people to whom it was said, “Salvation is of the Lord.” What else then does he say but this? Let no man presume on himself, seeing that it is of the Lord to save from the death of sin; for, “Wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death? The grace of God through Jesus Christ our Lord.” Romans 7:24-25 But bless, O Lord, Your people, who look for salvation from You.

    9. This Psalm can be taken as in the Person of Christ another way; which is that whole Christ should speak. I mean by whole, with His body, of which He is the Head, according to the Apostle, who says, “You are the body of Christ, and the members.” 1 Corinthians 12:27 He therefore is the Head of this body; wherefore in another place he says, “But doing the truth in love, we may increase in Him in all things, who is the Head, Christ, from whom the whole body is joined together and compacted.” Ephesians 4:15-16 In the Prophet then at once, the Church, and her Head (the Church founded amidst the storms of persecution throughout the whole world, which we know already to have come to pass), speaks, “O Lord, how are they multiplied that trouble me! Many rise up against me;” wishing to exterminate the Christian name. “Many say unto my soul, There is no salvation for him in his God.” For they would not otherwise hope that they could destroy the Church, branching out so very far and wide, unless they believed that God had no care thereof. “But You, O Lord, art my taker;” in Christ of course. For into that flesh the Church too has been taken by the Word, “who was made flesh, and dwelt in us;” John 1:14 for that “In heavenly places has He made us to sit together with Him.” Ephesians 2:6 When the Head goes before, the other members will follow; for, “Who shall separate us from the love of Christ?” Romans 8:35 Justly then does the Church say, “You are my taker. My glory;” for she does not attribute her excellency to herself, seeing that she knows by whose grace and mercy she is what she is. “And the lifter up of my head,” of Him, namely, who, “the First-born from the dead,” Colossians 1:18 ascended up into heaven. “With my voice have I cried unto the Lord, and He heard me out of His holy mountain.” This is the prayer of all the Saints, the odour of sweetness, which ascends up in the sight of the Lord. For now the Church is heard out of this mountain, which is also her head; or, out of that justice of God, by which both His elect are set free, and their persecutors punished. Let the people of God also say, “I slept, and took rest; and rose, for the Lord will take me up;” that they may be joined, and cleave to their Head. For to this people is it said, “Awake you that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall lay hold on you.” Ephesians 5:14 Since they are taken out of sinners, of whom it is said generally, “But they that sleep, sleep in the night.” 1 Thessalonians 5:7 Let them say moreover, “I will not fear the thousands of people that surround me;” of the heathen verily that compass me about to extinguish everywhere, if they could, the Christian name. But how should they be feared, when by the blood of the martyrs in Christ, as by oil, the ardour of love is inflamed? “Arise, O Lord, save me, O my God.” The body can address this to its own Head. For at His rising the body was saved; who “ascended up on high, led captivity captive, gave gifts unto men.” For this is said by the Prophet, in the secret purpose of God, until that ripe harvest Matthew 9:37 which is spoken of in the Gospel, whose salvation is in His Resurrection, who vouchsafed to die for us, shed out our Lord to the earth. “Since You have smitten all who oppose me without a cause, You have broken the teeth of the sinners.” Now while the Church has rule, the enemies of the Christian name are smitten with confusion; and, whether their curses or their chiefs, brought to nought. Believe then, O man, that “salvation is of the Lord: and,” You, O Lord, may “Your blessing” be “upon Your people.”

    10. Each one too of us may say, when a multitude of vices and lusts leads the resisting mind in the law of sin, “O Lord, how are they multiplied that trouble me! Many rise up against me.” And, since despair of recovery generally creeps in through the accumulation of vices, as though these same vices were mocking the soul, or even as though the Devil and his angels through their poisonous suggestions were at work to make us despair, it is said with great truth, “Many say unto my soul, There is no salvation for him in his God. But You, O Lord, art my taker.” For this is our hope, that He has vouchsafed to take the nature of man in Christ. “My glory;” according to that rule, that no one should ascribe ought to himself. “And the lifter up of my head;” either of Him, who is the Head of us all, or of the spirit of each several one of us, which is the head of the soul and body. For “the head of the woman is the man, and the head of the man is Christ.” 1 Corinthians 11:3 But the mind is lifted up, when it can be said already, “With the mind I serve the law of God;” Romans 7:25 that the rest of man may be reduced to peaceable submission, when in the resurrection of the flesh “death is swallowed up in victory.” 1 Corinthians 15:54 “With my voice I have cried unto the Lord;” with that most inward and intensive voice. “And He heard me out of His holy mountain;” Him, through whom He has succoured us, through whose mediation He hears us. “I slept, and took rest; and rose, for the Lord will take me up.” Who of the faithful is not able to say this, when he calls to mind the death of his sins, and the gift of regeneration? “I will not fear the thousands of people that surround me.” Besides those which the Church universally has borne and bears, each one also has temptations, by which, when compassed about, he may speak these words, “Arise, O Lord; save me, O my God:” that is, make me to arise. “Since You have smitten all who oppose me without a cause:” it is well in God’s determinate purpose said of the Devil and his angels; who rage not only against the whole body of Christ, but also against each one in particular. “You have broken the teeth of the sinners.” Each man has those that revile him, he has too the prime authors of vice, who strive to cut him off from the body of Christ. But “salvation is of the Lord.” Pride is to be guarded against, and we must say, “My soul cleaved after You.” “And upon Your people” be “Your blessing:” that is, upon each one of us.

    http://www.augustinus.it/latino/esposizioni_salmi/index2.htm
    ENARRATIONES IN PSALMOS
    S. Aurelii Augustini OPERA OMNIA – editio latina > PL 36 > Enarrationes in Psalmos

    IN PSALMUM 3
    ENARRATIO

    David figura Christi.
    1. [v 1.] Hunc psalmum ex persona Christi accipiendum persuadet quod dictum est: Ego dormivi, et somnum cepi: et exsurrexi, quoniam Dominus suscipiet me 1. Magis enim hoc ad passionem et resurrectionem Domini congruenter sonat, quam ad illam historiam in qua David scribitur fugisse a facie bellantis adversum se filii sui 2. Et quoniam scriptum est de discipulis Christi: Quamdiu cum eis est sponsus, non ieiunant filii sponsi 3; non mirum si filius eius impius, significatur discipulus impius qui eum tradidit. A cuius facie fugisse quamquam historice possit accipi, quando illo discedente secessit cum caeteris in montem; tamen spiritaliter, quando mentem Iudae Filius Dei, id est virtus et sapientia Dei, deseruit, cum eum diabolus penitus invasit, in eo quod scriptum est: Et intravit diabolus in cor eius 4, bene accipitur a facie eius Christum fugisse; non quia Christus diabolo cessit, sed Christo discedente diabolus possedit. Quem discessum fugam esse in hoc psalmo appellatum celeritatis causa arbitror; quod verbo etiam Domini significatur dicentis: Quod facis, cito fac 5. Loquimur etiam sic in consuetudine, ut dicamus: Fugit me, quod in mentem non venit; et de homine doctissimo dicimus: Nihil eum fugit. Propterea veritas fugit mentem Iudae, cum eum illustrare destitit. Abessalon autem, sicut quidam interpretantur, in latina lingua dicitur Patris pax: quod mirum videri potest, sive in historia Regnorum, cum bellum adversus patrem Abessalon gesserit; sive in historia Novi Testamenti, cum traditor Domini Iudas fuerit, quemadmodum Patris pax possit intellegi. Sed et ibi qui diligenter legunt, vident in illo bello David pacatum fuisse filio, qui etiam magno cum dolore planxit exstinctum, dicens: Abessalon filius meus, quis dabit mihi mori pro te 6? et in historia Novi Testamenti, ipsa Domini nostri tanta et tam miranda patientia, quod eum tamdiu pertulit tamquam bonum, cum eius cogitationes non ignoraret, cum adhibuit ad convivium in quo corporis et sanguinis sui figuram discipulis commendavit et tradidit, quod denique in ipsa traditione osculum accepit 7, bene intellegitur pacem Christum exhibuisse traditori suo; quamvis ille tam sceleratae cogitationis interno bello vastaretur. Et ideo Abessalon Patris pax dicitur, quia pater habuit pacem, quam ille non habuit.

    2. [vv 2. 3.] Domine, quid multiplicati sunt qui tribulant me? tam scilicet multiplicati sunt, ut etiam de numero discipulorum non defuerit qui numero accesserit persequentium. Multi insurgunt super me: multi dicunt animae meae: Non est salus illi in Deo eius. Manifestum est quod nisi desperarent resurrecturum, non utique occiderent. Ad hoc valent illae voces: Descendat de cruce, si Filius Dei est; et: Alios salvavit, seipsum non potest 8. Ergo nec Iudas eum tradidisset, nisi ex eorum esset numero qui Christum contemnerent, dicentes: Non est salus illi in Deo eius.

    3. [v 4.] Tu autem, Domine, susceptor meus es: secundum hominem dicitur Deo; quia hominis susceptio est Verbum caro factum. Gloria mea: gloriam suam Deum dicit etiam ille, quem sic suscepit Dei Verbum, ut simul cum eo Deus fieret. Discant superbi, qui non libenter audiunt cum eis dicitur: Quid autem habes quod non accepisti? Si autem accepisti, quid gloriaris quasi non acceperis 9? Et exaltans caput meum: mentem ipsam humanam hic accipiendam puto, quod caput animae non absurde appellatur, quae ita inhaesit et quodammodo coaluit excellenti supereminentiae Verbi hominem suscipientis, ut tanta passionis humilitate non deponeretur.

    Vox cordis oratio est Deo.
    4. [v 5.] Voce mea ad Dominum clamavi: id est, non corporis voce, quae cum strepitu verberati aeris promitur; sed voce cordis, quae hominibus silet, Deo autem sicut clamor sonat. Qua voce Susanna exaudita est 10: et de qua voce ipse Dominus praecipit, ut in cubiculis clausis, id est, in secretis cordis sine strepitu oretur 11. Nec facile quisquam dixerit hac voce minus orari, si nullus verborum sonus reddatur ex corpore; quoniam et silentes cum in cordibus oramus, si alienae ab affectu orantis cogitationes intercurrant, nondum dici potest: Voce mea ad Dominum clamavi. Neque hoc recte dicitur, nisi cum sola anima, nihil carnis nihilque carnalium intentionum in oratione attrahens, loquitur Domino, ubi solus audit; clamor autem etiam iste dicitur, propter vim ipsius intentionis. Et exaudivit me de monte sancto suo: montem quidem ipsum Dominum per Prophetam dictum habemus, ut scriptum est, lapidem praecisum sine manibus crevisse in magnitudinem montis 12. Sed hoc ab ipsius persona non potest accipi, nisi forte ita dicere voluit: De memetipso, tamquam de monte sancto suo, me exaudivit, cum habitaret in me, id est, in ipso monte. Planius autem est et expeditius, si accipiamus exaudisse Deum de iustitia sua: iustum enim erat ut innocentem occisum, et cui retributa sunt mala pro bonis, resuscitaret a mortuis, et digna persequentibus retribueret; legimus enim: Iustitia tua sicut montes Dei 13.

    Quid sit prophetia.
    5. [v 6.] Ego dormivi, et somnum cepi. Non inconvenienter animadverti potest quod positum est: Ego, ad significandum quod sua voluntate mortem sustinuit, secundum illud: Propterea me Pater diligit, quoniam ego pono animam meam, ut iterum sumam eam. Nemo eam tollit a meipso: potestatem habeo ponendi eam, et potestatem habeo iterum sumendi eam 14: non ergo, inquit, vos me tamquam invitum cepistis et occidistis, sed ego dormivi, et somnum cepi; et exsurrexi, quoniam Dominus suscipiet me. Somnum autem pro morte positum innumerabiliter Scripturae continent, sicut Apostolus dicit: Nolo vos ignorare, fratres, de iis qui dormitionem acceperunt 15. Nec quaerendum est cur additum sit, somnum cepi, cum iam dictum esset, dormivi; usitatas enim habent Scripturae huiuscemodi repetitiones, sicut in secundo psalmo multas ostendimus. Nonnulli autem codices habent, dormivi, et soporatus sum, et alii aliter; quomodo interpretari potuerunt quod graece positum est, . Nisi forte dormitio morientis, somnus autem mortui accipi potest; ut dormitio sit qua transitur ad somnum, veluti est expergefactio qua transitur ad vigilationem. Ne pro inanibus sermonis ornamentis, repetitiones istas in divinis libris esse arbitremur. Bene ergo accipitur: Ego dormivi, et somnum cepi; Ego me passioni permisi, et mors consecuta est. Et exsurrexi, quoniam Dominus suscipiet me. Hoc magis animadvertendum est, quemadmodum in una sententia et praeteriti temporis verbum posuit, et futuri: et exsurrexi enim dixit, quod est de praeterito; et suscipiet, quod est de futuro; cum resurgere utique nisi illa susceptione non posset. Sed in prophetia bene miscentur futura praeteritis, quo utrumque significetur: quia ea quae ventura prophetantur, secundum tempus futura sunt; secundum scientiam vero prophetantium, iam pro factis habenda. Miscentur quoque praesentis temporis verba, quae suo loco, cum occurrerint, tractabuntur.

    6. [v 7.] Non timebo millia populi circumdantis me: scriptum est in Evangelio, quanta eum multitudo patientem et crucifixum circumsteterit 16. Exsurge, Domine, salvum me fac, Deus meus: non dormienti aut iacenti dicitur Deo, exsurge; sed moris est divinarum Scripturarum personae Dei tribuere quod in nobis facit; non quidem ubique, sed ubi congruenter dici potest, veluti cum ipse loqui dicitur, quando eius dono loquuntur Prophetae vel Apostoli, vel quique nuntii veritatis. Unde illud est: An vultis experimentum accipere eius qui in me loquitur Christus 17? non enim ait, eius quo illuminante aut iubente loquor; sed prorsus ipsam locutionem illi tribuit cuius munere loquebatur.

    7. [v 8.] Quoniam tu percussisti omnes adversantes mihi sine causa: non ita distinguendum est, quasi una sententia sit: Exsurge, Domine; salvum me fac, Deus meus, quoniam tu percussisti omnes adversantes mihi sine causa: non enim propterea salvum facit, quia percussit inimicos eius; sed potius ipso salvo facto, illos percussit. Ergo ad id quod sequitur pertinet; ut iste sit sensus: Quoniam tu percussisti omnes adversantes mihi sine causa, dentes peccatorum contrivisti; id est, inde contrivisti dentes peccatorum, quoniam percussisti omnes adversantes mihi. Poena quippe adversantium est, qua dentes eorum contriti sunt, id est, in irritum quasi in pulverem perducta verba peccatorum dilacerantium maledictis Filium Dei; ut sic accipiamus dentes, verba maledica, quibus dentibus dicit Apostolus: Si autem mordetis invicem, videte ne consumamini ab invicem 18. Possunt et dentes peccatorum accipi principes peccatorum, quorum auctoritate quisque de societate recte viventium praeciditur, et quasi incorporatur male viventibus. His dentibus contrarii sunt dentes Ecclesiae, quorum auctoritate ab errore gentilium variorumque dogmatum praeciduntur credentes, et in eam quae Christi corpus est transferuntur: his dentibus dictum est Petro ut manducaret mactata animalia 19; id est, occidendo in Gentibus quod erant, et transmutando in id quod ipse esset. Et de his dentibus Ecclesiae dicitur: Dentes tui sicut grex detonsarum ascendens de lavacro, quae omnes geminos pariunt, et sterilis non est in illis 20. Hi sunt qui recte praecipiunt, et quemadmodum praecipiunt ita vivunt; qui faciunt quod dictum est: Luceant opera vestra coram hominibus, ut benedicant Patrem vestrum qui in coelis est 21: horum enim auctoritate commoti, Deo per illos loquenti et operanti homines credunt, et separati a saeculo cui conformati erant, in Ecclesiae membra transeunt. Et ideo recte isti, per quos haec fiunt, dentes dicuntur detonsis ovibus similes, quia terrenarum curarum onera deposuerunt, et ascendentes de lavacro, de sordium saeculi ablutione per sacramentum baptismatis, omnes geminos pariunt. Operantur enim duo praecepta, de quibus dictum est: In his duobus praeceptis tota Lex pendet et Prophetae 22, diligentes Deum ex toto corde, et ex tota anima, et ex tota mente; et proximum tamquam seipsos. In quibus sterilis non est, quoniam tales fructus reddunt Deo. Secundum ergo istum intellectum sic accipiendum est, dentes peccatorum contrivisti; id est, in irritum adduxisti principes peccatorum, percutiendo omnes adversantes mihi sine causa: principes enim eum secundum evangelicam historiam persecuti sunt, cum multitudo inferior honoraret.

    8. [v 9.] Domini est salus, et super populum tuum benedictio tua. In una sententia et praecepit hominibus quid crederent, et pro credentibus oravit: nam, Domini est solus cum dicitur, ad homines sermo dirigitur; nec ita sequitur: Et super populum suum benedictio eius, ut totum hominibus dictum sit; sed ad ipsum Deum oratio convertitur, pro ipso populo cui dictum est: Domini est salus. Quid ergo ait, nisi hoc? Nemo de se praesumat, quoniam Domini est salvos facere de morte peccatis nam Infelix ego homo, quis me liberabit de corpore mortis huius? Gratia Dei, per Iesum Christum Dominum nostrum 23; tu autem, Domine, benedic populum tuum de te salutem sperantem.

    Totum Christi corpus Ecclesia.
    9. Potest et iste psalmus accipi ad personam Christi alio modo, id est, ut totus loquatur. Totus dico, cum corpore suo cui caput est, secundum Apostolum qui dicit: Vos autem estis corpus Christi et membra 24; ergo ille caput est huius corporis. Propter quod alio loco dicit: Veritatem autem facientes in caritate, augeamur in illo per omnia, qui est caput Christus, ex quo totum corpus connexum et compactum est 25. Loquitur ergo apud Prophetam simul Ecclesia et caput eius, inter procellas persecutionum constituta per universum orbem terrarum, quod iam contigisse scimus: Domine, quid multiplicati sunt qui tribulant me? multi insurgunt adversum me, christianum nomen exterminare cupientes. Multi dicunt animae meae: Non est salus illi in Deo eius: non enim aliter sperarent posse se perdere Ecclesiam latissime pullulantem, nisi ad Dei curam pertinere non crederent. Tu autem, Domine, susceptor meus es: in Christo utique; nam in illo homine et Ecclesia suscepta est a Verbo, quod caro factum est, et habitavit in nobis 26; quia et in coelestibus nos sedere fecit una cum illo 27: praecedente enim capite, membra caetera consequentur; quis enim nos separabit a caritate Christi 28? Recte ergo dicit etiam Ecclesia: Susceptor meus es, gloria mea; non enim sibi tribuit quod excellit, cum intellegit cuius gratia et misericordia talis est. Et exaltans caput meum, ipsum scilicet qui primogenitus a mortuis ascendit in coelum. Voce mea ad Dominum clamavi, et exaudivit me de monte sancto suo. Haec est oratio omnium sanctorum, odor suavitatis qui ascendit in conspectu Domini: iam enim exauditur Ecclesia de ipso monte, quod etiam caput eius est; vel de illa iustitia Dei, qua et liberantur electi eius, et persecutores eorum puniuntur. Dicat populus Dei etiam illud: Ego dormivi, et somnum cepi; et exsurrexi, quoniam Dominus suscipiet me, ut adiungatur et cohaereat capiti suo; huic enim populo dictum est: Surge qui dormis, et exsurge a mortuis, et continget te Christus 29; quoniam de peccatoribus assumptus est, de quibus generaliter dictum est: Qui autem dormiunt, nocte dormiunt 30. Dicat etiam: Non timebo millia populi circumdantis me; circumvallantium scilicet gentium, ad exstinguendum nomen, si possent, ubicumque christianum. Sed quomodo timerentur, cum tamquam oleo sanguine martyrum in Christo ardor caritatis inflammaretur? Exsurge, Domine, salvum me fac, Deus meus: potest hoc ipsi capiti suo corpus dicere; illo enim exsurgente salvum factum est, qui ascendit in altum, captivam egit captivitatem, dedit dona hominibus 31: hoc enim in praedestinatione a Propheta dicitur, quo usque ad terras Dominum nostrum, illa de qua in Evangelio dicitur, messis matura 32 deposuit, cuius salus est in eius resurrectione, qui pro nobis dignatus est mori. Quoniam tu percussisti omnes adversantes mihi sine causa, dentes peccatorum contrivisti: iam regnante Ecclesia, inimici nominis christiani confusione percussi sunt, et sive maledica verba eorum, sive principatus, in irritum deducti. Credite ergo, homines, quod Domini est salus: et, tu, Domine, sit super populum tuum benedictio tua.

    10. Potest etiam unusquisque nostrum dicere, cum vitiorum et cupiditatum multitudo resistentem mentem ducit in lege peccati: Domine, quid multiplicati sunt qui tribulant me, multi insurgunt adversum me? Et quoniam plerumque coacervatione vitiorum subrepit desperatio sanitatis, tamquam ipsis vitiis insultantibus animae, vel etiam diabolo et angelis eius per noxias suggestiones ut desperemus operantibus, verissime dicitur: Multi dicunt animae meae: Non est salus illi in Deo eius. Tu autem, Domine, susceptor meus es; haec enim spes est, quod naturam humanam in Christo suscipere dignatus est. Gloria mea: ex illa regula, ne quis sibi aliquid tribuat. Et exaltans caput meum: sive ipsum qui omnium nostrum caput est, sive uniuscuiusque nostrum spiritum, quod caput est animae et carnis; caput enim mulieris vir, et caput viri Christus 33. Exaltatur autem mens, cum iam dici potest: Mente servio legi Dei 34; ut caetera hominis pacata subdantur, cum iam carnis resurrectione absorbetur mors in victoriam 35. Voce mea ad Dominum clamavi: voce illa intima et intentissima. Et exaudivit me de monte sancto suo: de ipso per quem nobis subvenit, et quo mediatore nos exaudit. Ego dormivi, et somnum cepi; et exsurrexi, quoniam Dominus suscipiet me: quis hoc non potest fidelium dicere, recolens mortem peccatorum suorum, et donum regenerationis? Non timebo millia populi circumdantis me. Exceptis his quae universaliter Ecclesia sustinuit et sustinet, habet etiam unusquisque tentationes quibus circumvallatus haec dicat: Exsurge, Domine, salvum me fac, Deus meus; hoc est: Fac me exsurgere. Quoniam tu percussisti omnes adversantes mihi sine causa: recte in praedestinatione dicitur de diabolo et angelis eius, qui non solum in totum Christi corpus, sed etiam in singulos quosque privatim saeviunt. Dentes peccatorum contrivisti: habet unusquisque maledicentes sibi; habet etiam vitiorum auctores conantes eum a Christi corpore praecidere. Sed Domini est salus; cavenda superbia est, et dicendum: Adhaesit anima mea post te 36. Et super populum tuum benedictio tua, hoc est super unumquemque nostrum.

  21. Psalm 3: Latin, Greek, and English from the Douay-Rheims version with concordance notes on the Hebrew:

    1 canticum David cum fugeret a facie Abessalon filii sui
    ψαλμὸς τῷ δαυιδ ὁπότε ἀπεδίδρασκεν ἀπὸ προσώπου αβεσσαλωμ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ
    (psalmos tō dauid opote apedidrasken apo prosōpou abessalōm tou uiou autou)
    The psalm of David when he fled from the face of his son Absalom.
    Domine quare multiplicati sunt hostes mei multi consurgunt adversus me
    κύριε τί ἐπληθύνθησαν οἱ θλίβοντές με πολλοὶ ἐπανίστανται ἐπ’ ἐμέ
    (kurie ti eplēthunthēsan hoi thlibontes me polloi epanistantai ep’ eme)
    Why, O Lord, are they multiplied that afflict me? many are they who rise up against me.

    2 multi dicunt animae meae non est salus huic in Deo semper
    2 πολλοὶ λέγουσιν τῇ ψυχῇ μου οὐκ ἔστιν σωτηρία αὐτῷ ἐν τῷ θεῷ αὐτοῦ διάψαλμα
    (polloi legousin tē psuchē mou ouk estin sōtēria autō en tō theō autou diapsalma)
    Many say to my soul: There is no salvation for him in his God.

    3 tu autem Domine clipeus circa me gloria mea et exaltans caput meum
    σὺ δέ κύριε ἀντιλήμπτωρ μου εἶ δόξα μου καὶ ὑψῶν τὴν κεφαλήν μου
    (su de kurie antilēmptōr mou ei doxa mou kai hupsōn tēn kephalēn mou)
    But thou, O Lord art my protector, my glory, and the lifter up of my head.

    The Greek in the Septuagint presents some challenges. The word θλίβοντές (thlibontes)
    is derived from the verb θλίβω (thlibó): to press, afflict
    Phonetic Spelling: (thlee’-bo)
    Short Definition: I make narrow, persecute, press hard
    Definition: (a) I make narrow (strictly: by pressure); I press upon, (b) I persecute, press hard.
    Thayer’s Greek Lexicon:
    STRONGS NT 2346: θλίβω
    θλίβω; passive, present θλίβομαι; perfect participle τεθλιμμενος; (allied with flogrum, affliction; from Homer down); to press (as grapes), press hard upon: properly, τινα (A. V. throng), Mark 3:9; ὁδός τεθλιμμένη a compressed way, i. e. narrow, straitened, contracted, Matthew 7:14; metaphorically, to trouble, afflict, distress (Vulg., tribulo): τινα, 2 Thessalonians 1:6; passive (Vulg. tribulor (also augustior); tribulationem patior): 2 Corinthians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 4:8; 2 Corinthians 7:5; (1 Thessalonians 3:4; 2 Thessalonians 1:7); 1 Timothy 5:10; Hebrews 11:37. (οἱ θλίβοντες for צָרִים in the Sept.) (Compare: ἀποθλίβω, συνθλίβω.)

    The Greek πολλοὶ ( polloi) and the Latin “multi” have some relevance to the “pro multis” controversy.
    These are translations of the Hebrew word רַבִּים֮ (rabbim), meaning “much, many, great,” from rabab, the verb for “to be or become many or much.”
    The Hebrew word translated into Greek in Psalm 3:2 as σωτηρία (sōtēria)
    is יְֽשׁוּעָ֓תָה (ye·shu·’a·tah) which can mean salvation or deliverance.
    The Latin translation in the Vulgate is “salus“.

    From the KJV lexicon: “yshuw`ah (yesh-oo’-aw)
    something saved, i.e. (abstractly) deliverance; hence, aid, victory, prosperity — deliverance, health, help(-ing), salvation, save, saving (health), welfare.”
    Strong’s Concordance:
    yeshuah: salvation
    Original Word: יְשׁוּעָה
    Part of Speech: Noun Feminine
    Transliteration: yeshuah
    Phonetic Spelling: (yesh-oo’-aw)
    Short Definition: salvation

    Word Origin
    from yasha
    Definition
    salvation
    NASB Translation
    deeds of deliverance (1), deliverance (6), help (4), prosperity (1), salvation (61), save (1), saving (1), security (1), victories (1), victory (1).

    יְשׁוּעָה noun feminine salvation; — ׳יְשׁ Psalm 119:155 18t.; יְשׁוּעָ֫תָה Psalm 3:3; Jonah 2:10; יְשֻׁעָ֫תָה Psalm 80:3; construct יְשׁוּעַת Exodus 14:13 4t.; suffix יְשֻׁעָתִי Job 30:15; יְשׁוּעָתִי Psalm 62:2 12t., + 25 t. suffixes; plural יְשׁוּעוֺת 2 Samuel 22:51 6t.; יְשׁוּעֹת 2Sam 42:12 3t.; יְשֻׁעוֺת 2Sam 53:7; —

    1 welfare, prosperity: כעב עברה ישׁעתי Job 30:15 as a cloud my prosperity passed away.

    2 deliverance: והיתה לי לישׁועה and thou wilt be to me for deliverance 2 Samuel 10:11 = 1 Chronicles 19:12.

    3 salvation by God, primarily from external evils, but often with added spiritual idea: Genesis 49:18 (poem), Isaiah 33:2; Isaiah 52:7,10; Isaiah 59:11; Isaiah 60:18; Jonah 2:10; Psalm 3:3; Psalm 3:9; Psalm 14:7 = Psalm 53:7; Psalm 22:2; Psalm 35:3; Psalm 62:2; Psalm 69:30; Psalm 70:5 ( = תשׁועה Psalm 40:17), Psalm 78:22; Psalm 80:3; Psalm 91:16; Psalm 96:2 = 1 Chronicles 16:23, Psalm 106:4; Psalm 140:8; Job 13:16; with verbs of rejoicing בישׁועה 1 Samuel 2:1; Isaiah 25:9; Psalm 9:15; Psalm 13:6; Psalm 35:9; יְשׁועָה יָשִׁית חוֺמוֺת Isaiah 26:1 salvation will he set as walls; compare phrase ׳אֱלֹהֵי ישׁ Psalm 88:2, ׳אֵל ישׁ Isaiah 12:2, ׳צוּר ישׁ Deuteronomy 32:15 (song), Psalm 89:27, compare צוּרִי וְישׁוּעָתִי Psalm 62:3; Psalm 62:7; ׳יוֺם ישׁ Isaiah 49:8; ׳מַעַיְנֵי הישׁ Isaiah 12:3 wells of salvation; plural יְשׁוּעוֺת (intensive), of ׳יְשׁוּעוֺת מָּנַי ׃י Psalm 42:6; the salvation of my face (person; פניו ᵑ0 error, פני ᵐ5 ᵑ6), Psalm 42:12; Psalm 43:5; כּוֺס ישׁועות Psalm 116:13 cup commemorating saving acts (of drink-offering); further Psalm 119:123; Psalm 119:155; Psalm 119:166; Psalm 119:174; “” צְדָקָה Isaiah 51:6,8; Isaiah 56:1; Isaiah 62:1; Psalm 98:2; Psalm 98:3; יְשׁוּעָתִי עַדקְֿצֵה הָאָרֶץ Isaiah 49:6 my salvation unto the ends of the earth; בְּכָלאגּוֺיִם יְשׁוּעָתֶ֑ךָ Psalm 67:3 among all nations thy salvation.

    4 victory: with עָשָׂה work victory 1 Samuel 14:45; Isaiah 26:18: elsewhere of victories wrought by Yahweh for his people Exodus 15:2 (song) Isaiah 12:2; Habakkuk 3:8; Psalm 20:6; Psalm 21:2; Psalm 21:6; Psalm 44:5; Psalm 68:20; Psalm 118:14; Psalm 118:15; Psalm 118:21; phrases: פעל יְשׁוּעוֺת do victories Psalm 74:12; חֹסֶן יְשׁוּעֹת Isaiah 33:6 store of victories; מִגְדּוֺל יְשׁוּעוֺת 2 Samuel 22:51 Qr tower of victories (Kt מַגְדִּיל and so “” Psalm 18:51); מָעוֺז יְשׁוּעוֺת Psalm 28:8 stronghold of victories; ׳רְאוּ אֶתיְֿשׁוּעַת י Exodus 14:13 (J) see the victory of Yahweh, 2 Chronicles 20:17; כּוֺבַע יְשׁוּעָה Isaiah 59:17 helmet of victory; יְפָאֵר עֲנָוִים בִּישׁוּעָה Psalm 149:4 he will beautify the meek with victory. — compare the synonym תְּשׁוּעָה below

    Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance:
    deliverance, health, helping, salvation, save, saving health, welfare

    Feminine passive participle of yasha’; something saved, i.e. (abstractly) deliverance; hence, aid, victory, prosperity — deliverance, health, help(-ing), salvation, save, saving (health), welfare.

    see HEBREW yasha’
    biblesuite.com/hebrew/3444.htm

    Genesis 49:18
    BIB: לִֽישׁוּעָתְךָ֖ קִוִּ֥יתִי יְהוָֽה׃
    NAS: For Your salvation I wait, O LORD.
    KJV: I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD.
    INT: your salvation wait LORD

    Psalm 3
    Greek:
    1 ψαλμὸς τῷ δαυιδ ὁπότε ἀπεδίδρασκεν ἀπὸ προσώπου αβεσσαλωμ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ κύριε τί ἐπληθύνθησαν οἱ θλίβοντές με πολλοὶ ἐπανίστανται ἐπ’ ἐμέ
    2 πολλοὶ λέγουσιν τῇ ψυχῇ μου οὐκ ἔστιν σωτηρία αὐτῷ ἐν τῷ θεῷ αὐτοῦ διάψαλμα
    3 σὺ δέ κύριε ἀντιλήμπτωρ μου εἶ δόξα μου καὶ ὑψῶν τὴν κεφαλήν μου

    Latin:
    1 canticum David cum fugeret a facie Abessalon filii sui Domine quare multiplicati sunt hostes mei multi consurgunt adversus me
    2 multi dicunt animae meae non est salus huic in Deo semper
    3 tu autem Domine clipeus circa me gloria mea et exaltans caput meum

    Douay-Rheims:
    1 The psalm of David when he fled from the face of his son Absalom. Why, O Lord, are they multiplied that afflict me? many are they who rise up against me.
    2 Many say to my soul: There is no salvation for him in his God.
    3 But thou, O Lord art my protector, my glory, and the lifter up of my head.

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    Concordance:
    Luke 18:14 V-PPA-NMS
    BIB: πᾶς ὁ ὑψῶν ἑαυτὸν ταπεινωθήσεται
    NAS: for everyone who exalts himself
    KJV: every one that exalteth himself
    INT: everyone who exalts himself will be humbled

    dico vobis descendit hic iustificatus in domum suam ab illo quia omnis qui se exaltat humiliabitur et qui se humiliat exaltabitur
    λέγω ὑμῖν, κατέβη οὗτος δεδικαιωμένος εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ παρ’ ἐκεῖνον· ὅτι πᾶς ὁ ὑψῶν ἑαυτὸν ταπεινωθήσεται, ὁ δὲ ταπεινῶν ἑαυτὸν ὑψωθήσεται.
    (legō humin katebē houtos dedikaiōmenos eis ton oikon autou par ekeinon hoti pas ho hupsōn eauton tapeinōthēsetai ho de tapeinōn heauton hupsōthēsetai)

    ὑψωθήσεται (hupsōthēsetai): to lift or raise up, to exalt, uplift
    δεδικαιωμένος (dedikaiōmenos): to show to be righteous, declare righteous (Latin: iustificatus)

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